Found

The document has moved here.

Evidence: mechanical pain, etc.

Posted on 18. Jul, 2013 by in Read, Research

Studies specific to mechanical pain, a changing symptomatic picture or further investigation of orthopaedic findings on initial examination.

 

Background: There is a legal and clinical responsibility for the chiropractor to provide the patient with an accurate differential diagnosis for the underlying mechanisms of pain and before a sound clinical rationale for evidence-influenced physical management.

 

 

1. Best Evidence on Assessment and Intervention for Neck Pain Assessment of Neck Pain and Its Associated Disorders: Results of the Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010 Task Force on Neck Pain and Its Associated Disorders Nordin, Margareta PT, Dr Med Sc; Carragee, Eugene J. MD, FACS; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah PhD; Weiner, Shira Schecter PT, PhD (Candidate); Hurwitz, Eric L. DC, PhD; Peloso, Paul M. MD, MSc, FRCP(C); Guzman, Jaime MD, MSc, FRCP(C); van der Velde, Gabrielle DC; Carroll, Linda J. PhD; Holm, Lena W. Dr Med Sc; Côté, Pierre DC, PhD; Cassidy, J David PhD, Dr Med Sc; Haldeman, Scott DC, MD, PhD Spine Journal:15 February 2008 – Volume 33 – Issue 4S – pp S101-S122

 

2. The value of medical history and physical examination in diagnosing sacroiliac joint pain. Dreyfuss P, Michaelsen M, Pauza K, mcLarty J, Bogduk N. Spine Journal 1996;21:2594-2602.

 

3. Selective Indications for Thoracic and Lumbar Radiography in Blunt Trauma
Carol A Terregino, Steven E Ross, Mary Fran Lipinski, Jane Foreman, Richard Hughes
Annals of Emergency Medicine
August 1995 (Vol. 26, Issue 2, Pages 126-129)

 

4. Radiograph assessment for patients with low back pain
Edward D Simmons, Richard D Guyer, Arnold Graham-Smith, Richard Herzog
The Spine Journal
May 2003 (Vol. 3, Issue 3, Supplement, Pages 3-5)

 

5. Functional and radiographic outcome of sacroiliac arthrodesis for the disorders f the sacroiliac joint
Jacob M. Buchowski, Khaled M. Kebaish, Vladimir Sinkov, David B. Cohen, Ann N. Sieber, John P. Kostuik
The Spine Journal
September 2005 (Vol. 5, Issue 5, Pages 520-528)

 

6. A cross-sectional study correlating lumbar spine degeneration with disability and pain. Peterson CK, Bolton JE, Wood AR. Spine Journal 2000;25:218-23.

 

7. A cross-sectional study correlating lumbar spine degeneration with disability and pain. Peterson CK, Bolton JE, Wood AR. Spine Journal 2000;25:218-23.

 

8. Clinical findings as outcome predictors in rehabilitation of patients with sciatica. Nykvist F, et al. International J of Rehabilitation Res 1991;14:131-144.

 

9. An analytical survey of structural aberrations observed in static radiographic examinations among acute low back cases. Reinert OC. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1988 Feb;11(1):24-30.

 

10. Clinical findings as outcome predictors in rehabilitation of patients with sciatica. Nykvist F, et al. International J of Rehabilitation Res 1991;14:131-144.

 

11. Radiographic analysis of lumbar spine for low-back pain in the general population. Inaoka M, et al. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2000;120:380-385.

 

12. Clinical findings in a population with back pain. Relation to one-year outcome and long-term sick leave. Reigo T, Tropp H, Timpka T. Scand J Prim Health Care. 2000;18(4):208-214.

 

13. A comparative roentgenographic analysis of the lumbar spine in male army recruits with and without lower back pain. Steinberg EL, Luger E, Arbel R, Menachem A, Dekel S. Clin Radiol. 2003 Dec; 58(12): 985-9.

 

14. Radiographic analysis of sagittal plane alignment and balance in standing volunteers and patients with low back pain matched for age, sex and size. Jackson RP, McManis AC. Spine Journal. 1994;19:1611–1618

 

15. The association between cervical spine curvature and neck pain. Grob D, Frauenfelder H, Mannion AF (2006) Eur Spine J Nov 18; [Epub ahead of print].

 

16. Hyperextension strain or “whiplash” injuries to the cervical spine. Griffiths HJ, Olson PN, Everson LI, Winemiller M. Skeletal Radiology 1995; 24(4):263-6.

 

17. A Multiple Parameter Assessment of Whiplash Injury Patients Undergoing Subluxation Based Chiropractic Care: A Retrospective Study. McCoy HG, Matthew McCoy M. JVSR 1996 Vol 1, No. 3. p 1-11.

 

18. Traumatic thoracic outlet syndrome. Kai Y, et al. Orthop Traumatol 1998;47:1169-1171.

 

19. Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome in whiplash injury. . Kai Y, et al. J Spinal Disorders 2001;14:487-493.

 

20. Relationship of forward head posture and cervical backward bending to neck pain. Haughie LJ, Fiebert IM, Roach KE. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1995(3):91-97.

 

21. Posture in patients with shoulder overuse injuries in healthy individuals. Greenfield B, Catlin PA, Coats PW, Green E, McDonald JJ, North C. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1995 May;21(5):287-95.

 

22. Musculoskeletal abnormalities in chronic headache: A controlled comparison of headache diagnostic groups. Marcus DA, et al. Headache 1999;39:21-27.

 

23. Forward head posture and neck mobility in chronic tension-type headache: a blinded, controlled study Fernández C, et al. Cephalalgia 2006;26(3):314-319.

 

24. Myofascial trigger points, neck mobility and forward head posture in unilateral migraine. Fernández-de-Las-Peñas C, Cuadrado ML, Pareja JA. Cephalalgia. 2006 Sep;26(9):1061-70.

 

 

25. Performance of the craniocervical flexion test, forward head posture, and headache clinical parameters in patients with chronic tension-type headache: a pilot study. Fernandez-de-las-Peñas C, Pérez-de-Heredia M, Molero-Sánchez A, Miangolarra-Page JC. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2007 Feb;37(2):33-9.

 

26. Clinical characteristics of flexed posture in elderly women. J Am Geritric Soc. 2003 Oct: 51(10) 1419-26

 

27. The impact of positive sagital balance in adult spinal deformity. Spine Journal Volume 30(18). Sept 15 2005 pp2024-2029

 

28. Determining the relationship between cervical lordosis and neck complaints. Journal of manipulative physiol therapy 2005 (Mar) 8(3):

 

29. Handbook of clinical chiropractic. Wyatt LH. Gaithersburg (MD): Aspen Publishers; 1992;

 

30. Low back pain and the lumbar intervertebral disk: Clinical considerations for the doctor of chiropractic
Stephan J. Troyanovich, Donald D. Harrison, Deed E. Harrison
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
February 1999 (Vol. 22, Issue 2, Pages 96-104)

 

31. A Nonsurgical Approach to the Management of Patients With Lumbar Radiculopathy Secondary to Herniated Disk: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study With Follow-Up
Donald R. Murphy, Eric L. Hurwitz, Ericka E. McGovern
JMPT
November 2009 (Vol. 32, Issue 9, Pages 723-733)

 

32. A new computer aided technique for analysis of lateral cervical radiographs in postoperative patients with degenerative disease. Herman AM, Giesler FH, Spine 2004 Aug 15;29(16)p1795-1803

33. Correlative analysis of lateral vertebral radiographic variables and medical outcomes study short-form health survey: a comparative study in asymptomatic volunteers versus patients with low back pain. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2002 Oct;15(5):384-90. Korovessis P Dimas A Iliopoulos P Lambiris E

34. The significance of correlation of radiographic variables and MOS short-form health survey for clinical decision in symptomatic low back pain patients. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2002;91:325-31.Korovessis P Dimas A Lambiris E

35. Methodological quality and outcomes of studies addressing manual cervical spine examinations: A review
Dieter Hollerwöger
Manual Therapy
May 2006 (Vol. 11, Issue 2, Pages 93-98)

36. Elliptical modeling of the sagittal lumbar lordosis and segmental rotation angles as a method to discriminate between normal and low back pain subjects. Harrison DD, Cailliet R, Janik TJ, et al. J Spinal Disorders. 1998;11:430–439.

 

37. The Cellular Pathobiology of the Degenerate Intervertebral Disc and Discogenic Back Pain Rheumatology , 2009-01-01

 

38. Anterior thoracic posture increases thoracolumbar disc loading. Deed E. Harrison Christopher J. Colloca Donald D. Harrison Tadeusz J. Janik Jason W. Haas Tony S. Keller. Eur Spine J (2005) 14 : 234–242

 

39. Intervertebral Disc Degeneration Reduces Vertebral Motion Responses Christopher J. Colloca, DC,* Tony S. Keller, PhD,† Robert J. Moore, PhD Robert Gunzburg, MD, PhD,§ and Deed E. Harrison, DC Spine journal 2002 Volume 32, Number 19, pp E544-50

 

40. Comparative roentgenographic study of the asymptomatic and symptomatic lumbar spine. Torgerson WR, Dotter WE. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1976;58:850-3.

 

41. A. Low-back pain in relation to lumbar disc degeneration. Luoma K, Riihimaki H, Luukkonen R, Raininko R, Viikari-Juntura E, Lamminen Spine Journal 2000;25:487-92

 

42. A Cross-Sectional Study Correlating Cervical Radiographic Degenerative Findings to Pain and Disability. Marchiori, Dennis M. DC, MS, DACBR; Henderson, Charles N. R. DC, PhD Spine:1 December 1996 – Volume 21 – Issue 23 – pp 2747-2751

 

43. Investigation of the relation between low back pain and occupation. Magora A: Scand J Rehab Med 1975;7:146-151.

 

44. Relation between low back pain syndrome and x-ray findings. Magora A: Scand J Rehab Med 1978; 10:135-145.

 

45. Modeling of the Sagittal Cervical Spine as a Method to Discriminate Hypo-Lordosis: Results of Elliptical and Circular Modeling in 72 Asymptomatic Subjects, 52 Acute Neck Pain Subjects, and 70 Chronic Neck Pain Subjects. Harrison DD, Harrison DE, Janik TJ, Cailliet R, Haas JW, Ferrantelli J, Holland B (2004) Spine Journal 29:2485-2492.

 

46. Contemporary concepts in spine care: radiographic assessment for patients with low back pain. Simmons ED, Guyer RD, Graham-Smith A, Herzog R. Spine Journal 1995;20:1839-41.

 

47. Cervical curvature in acute whiplash injuries: a prospective comparative study with asymptomatic subjects. Injury 1998;29 p775-8

 

48. Cervical zygapophyseal joint pain patterns. II: A clinical evaluation. Aprill C, Dwyer A, Bogduk N. Spine Journal 1990;15:458-61.

 

49. Mechanical initiation of intervertebral disc degeneration. Adams MA, Freeman BJ, Morrison HP et al. Spine 2000;25:1625-36.

 

50. The effect of posture on the fluid content of lumbar intervertebral discs. Adams MA, Hutton WC. Spine 1983;8:665-71.

 

51. The effect of posture on diffusion into lumbar intervertebral discs. Adams MA, Hutton WC. J Anat. 1986;147:121-34.

 

52. The effect of posture on the role of the apophysial joints in resisting intervertebral compressive forces. Adams MA, Hutton WC. J Bone Joint Surg.[Br.] 1980;62:358-62.

 

53. Sustained loading generates stress concentrations in lumbar intervertebral discs. Adams MA, McMillan DW, Green TP et al. Spine 1996;21:434-8.

 

54. ‘Stress’ distributions inside intervertebral discs. The effects of age and degeneration. Adams MA, McNally DS, Dolan P. J Bone Joint Surg.Br. 1996;78:965-72.

 

55. The prevalence of cervical zygapophyseal joint pain. A first approximation. Aprill C, Bogduk N. Spine. 1992;17:744-7.

 

56. The innervation of the lumbar spine. Bogduk N. Spine. 1983;8:286-93.

 

57. On the nature of neck pain, discography and cervical zygapophysial joint blocks. Bogduk N, Aprill C. Pain 1993;54:213-7.

 

58. The anatomy of the so-called “articular nerves” and their relationship to facet denervation in the treatment of low-back pain. Bogduk N, Long DM. J.Neurosurg. 1979;51:172-7.

 

59. Percutaneous lumbar medial branch neurotomy: a modification of facet denervation. Bogduk N, Long DM. Spine. 1980;5:193-200.

 

60. The human lumbar dorsal rami. Bogduk N, Wilson AS, Tynan W. J Anat. 1982;134 (Pt2):383-97.

 

61. The Management of Pain. 2 ed. Bonica JJ. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1990.

 

62. 2000 Volvo Award winner in clinical studies: Lumbar high-intensity zone and discography in subjects without low back problems. Carragee EJ, Paragioudakis SJ, Khurana S. Spine 2000;25:2987-92.

 

63. Cervical radiculopathy: the diagnosis and treatment of pathomechanics in the

64. cervical spine. J Manipulative.Physiol Ther. Carrick FR. 1983;6:129-37.

 

65. An inflammation model of low back pain. Cavanaugh J.M., Yamashita T., Ozaktay A.C. et al 1990. Boston, MA, Proceedings of the International Society for the Study of the Lumbar Spine. 1990.Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

 

66. Neural mechanisms of lumbar pain. Cavanaugh JM. Spine. 1995;20:1804-9.

 

67. Innervation of the rabbit lumbar intervertebral disc and posterior longitudinal ligament. Cavanaugh JM, Kallakuri S, Ozaktay AC. Spine. 1995;20:2080-5.

 

68. Motor and somatosensory conduction in cervical myelopathy and radiculopathy. Chistyakov AV, Soustiel JF, Hafner H et al. Spine 1995;20:2135-40.

 

69. Effects of posture and structure on three-dimensional coupled rotations in the lumbar spine. A biomechanical analysis. Cholewicki J, Crisco JJ, III, Oxland TR et al. Spine 1996;21:2421-8.

 

70. Postural aberrations in low back pain. Christie HJ, Kumar S, Warren SA. Arch.Phys.Med.Rehabil. 1995;76:218-24.

 

71. The surgical anatomy of thoracic facet denervation. Chua WH, Bogduk N. ActaNeurochir.(Wien.) 1995;136:140-4.

 

72. Innervation of “painful” lumbar discs. Coppes MH, Marani E, Thomeer RT et al. Spine 1997;22:2342-9.

 

73. Chiropractic biophysics technique: a linear algebra approach to posture in chiropractic. Harrison DD, Janik TJ, Harrison GR et al. J.Manipulative.Physiol.Ther. 1996;19:525- 13491

 

74. Cervical zygapophyseal joint pain patterns. I: A study in normal volunteers. Dwyer A, Aprill C, Bogduk N. Spine. 1990;15:453-7.

 

75. Clinical and electrophysiological appraisal of the significance of radicular injury in back pain. Fisher MA, Shivde AJ, Teixera C et al. J Neurol.Neurosurg.Psychiatry 1978;41:303-6.

 

76. [Innervation of the sacroiliac joint of the human] Z Grob KR, Neuhuber WL, Kissling RO. Rheumatol. 1995;54:117-22.

 

77. The innervation of the spinal dura mater: anatomy and clinical implications. Groen GJ, Baljet B, Drukker J. Acta Neurochir (Wein) 1988;92(1-4):39-46.

 

78. North American Spine Society: failure of the pathology model to predict back pain. Haldeman S. Spine 1990;15:718-24.

 

79. Effects of hydrostatic pressure on matrix synthesis and matrix metalloproteinase production in the human lumbar intervertebral disc. Handa T, Ishihara H, Ohshima H et al. Spine 1997;22:1085-91.

 

80. Anterior thoracic posture increases thoracolumbar disc loading. Harrison DE, Colloca CJ, Harrison DD et al. Eur.Spine J. 2005;14:234-42.

 

81. Does long-term compressive loading on the intervertebral disc cause degeneration? [In Process Citation]. Hutton WC, Ganey TM, Elmer WA et al. Spine 2000;25:2993-3004.

 

82. A comparison of the innervation characteristics of the lateral spinal ligaments between normal subjects and patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Jiang H, Greidanus N, Moreau M et al. Acta Anat.(Basel.) 1997;160:200-7.

 

83. The nature and distribution of the innervation of human supraspinal and interspinal ligaments. . Jiang H, Russell G, Raso VJ et al. Spine. 1995;20:869-76. of lumbar spinal dura and longitudinal ligaments. Spine 1998;(23)4;403-411.

 

84. Possible mechanism of painful radiculopathy in lumbar disc herniation. Kawakami M, Tamaki T, Hayashi N et al. Clin.Orthop 1998;241-51.

 

85. Experimental lumbar radiculopathy. Behavioral and histologic changes in a model of radicular pain after spinal nerve root irritation with chromic gut ligatures in the rat. Kawakami M, Weinstein JN, Chatani K et al. Spine. 1994;19:1795-802.

 

86. Experimental lumbar radiculopathy. Immunohistochemical and quantitative demonstrations of pain induced by lumbar nerve root irritation of the rat. Kawakami M, Weinstein JN, Spratt KF et al. Spine. 1994;19:1780-94.

 

87. Acute brachial neuropathy–electrophysiological study and clinical profile. . Kim KK. J Korean Med Sci. 1996;11:158-64.

 

88. The relationship of degeneration of the intervertebral disc to mechanical loading conditions on lumbar vertebrae. Kurowski P, Kubo A. Spine 1986;11:726-31.

 

89. Lumbar spine pain originating from vertebral osteophytes. Lamer TJ. Reg Anesth.Pain Med. 1999;24:347-51.

 

90. Spine loading characteristics of patients with low back pain compared with asymptomatic individuals. Marras WS, Davis KG, Ferguson SA et al. Spine 2001;26:2566-74.

 

91. Extraforaminal entrapment of the fifth lumbar spinal nerve by osteophytes of the lumbosacral spine: anatomic study and a report of four cases. Matsumoto M, Chiba K, Nojiri K et al. Spine 2002;27:E169-E173.

 

92. Mechanoreceptor endings in human thoracic and lumbar facet joints. McLain RF, Pickar JG. Spine. 1998;23:168-73.

 

93. Mechanoreceptor endings of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine. McLain RF, Raiszadeh K. Iowa.Orthop J 1995;15:147-55.

 

94. An electrophysiological study on the mechanoreceptors in the lumbar spine

95. and adjacent tissues. Neuro-Orthopedics Minaki Y. 1996;20:23-35.

 

96. The relative contributions of the disc and 13603 zygapophyseal joint in chronic low back pain. Schwarzer AC, Aprill CN, Derby R et al. Spine. 1994;19:801-6.

 

97. Posture affects motion coupling patterns of the upper cervical spine. Panjabi MM, Oda T, Crisco JJ, III et al. J Orthop Res. 1993;11:525-36.

 

98. Traction osteophytes of the lumbar spine: radiographic-pathologic correlation. Pate D, Goobar J, Resnick D et al. Radiology 1988;166:843-6.

 

99. Spinal nerve stimulation in S1 radiculopathy. Pease WS, Lagattuta FP, Johnson EW. Am.J Phys Med Rehabil 1990;69:77-80.

 

100. The pathogenesis of discogenic low back pain. Peng B, Wu Wm Hou S, et al. JBJS [Br] 2005;87(1):62-7.

 

101. Attributes and qualities of human posture and their relationship to dysfunction or musculoskeletal pain. Raine S, Twomey L. Crit Rev Phys Rehabil Med 1994;6:409-37.

 

102. Mechanoreceptors in intervertebral discs. Morphology, distribution, and neuropeptides. Roberts S, Eisenstein SM, Menage J et al. Spine. 1995;20:2645-51.

 

103. Clinical features of patients with pain stemming from the lumbar zygapophysial joints. Is the lumbar facet syndrome a clinical entity? Schwarzer AC, Aprill CN, Derby R et al. Spine. 1994;19:1132-7.

 

104. Disc degeneration and angular movement of the lumbar spine: comparative study using plain and flexion-extension radiography and discography. Soini J, Antti-Poika I, Tallroth K et al. J Spinal Disord. 1991;4:183-7.

 

105. Pain from the lumbar zygapophysial joints: a test of two models. Schwarzer AC, Derby R, Aprill CN et al. J.Spinal.Disord. 1994;7:331-6.

 

106. Prevalence and clinical features of lumbar zygapophysial joint pain: a study in an Australian population with chronic low back pain. Schwarzer AC, Wang SC, Bogduk N et al. Ann.Rheum.Dis. 1995;54:100-6.

 

107. Spinal segmental somatosensory evoked potentials in lumbosacral radiculopathies. Seyal M, Sandhu LS, Mack YP. Neurology 1989;39:801-5.

 

108. The effect of anterior osteophytes and flexural position on thoracic trabecular strain. Toh E, Yerby SA, Bay BK et al. Spine 2001;26:22-6.

 

109. Cervicogenic dysfunction in muscle contraction headache and migraine: a descriptive study [see comments]. Vernon H, Steiman I, Hagino C. J Manipulative.Physiol Ther. 1992;15:418-29.

 

110. Histologic analysis of neural elements in the human sacroiliac joint. Vilensky JA, O’Connor BL, Fortin JD et al. Spine 2002;27:1202-7.

 

111. Mechanosensitive afferent units in the lumbar facet joint. Yamashita T, Cavanaugh JM, el-Bohy AA et al. J.Bone Joint Surg.[Am.] 1990;72:865-70.

112. Head Posture and Neck Pain of Chronic Nontraumatic Origin: A Comparison Between Patients and Pain-Free Persons
Anabela G. Silva, T. David Punt, Paul Sharples, João P. Vilas-Boas, Mark I. Johnson
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
April 2009 (Vol. 90, Issue 4, Pages 669-674)

113. Chronic Mechanical Neck Pain in Adults Treated by Manual Therapy: A Systematic Review of Change Scores in Randomized Clinical Trials
Howard Vernon, Kim Humphreys, Carol Hagino
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
March 2007 (Vol. 30, Issue 3, Pages 215-227)

114. The Effects of Side-Posture Positioning and Spinal Adjusting on the Lumbar Z Joints: A Randomized Controlled Trial With Sixty-Four Subjects Spine journal 15 November 2002 – Volume 27 – Issue 22 – pp 2459-2466

115. Head Posture and Neck Pain of Chronic Nontraumatic Origin: A Comparison Between Patients and Pain-Free Persons
Anabela G. Silva, T. David Punt, Paul Sharples, João P. Vilas-Boas, Mark I. Johnson
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
April 2009 (Vol. 90, Issue 4, Pages 669-674)

116. Acute low-back pain problems in adults. Rockville, Md: Agency of Health Care Policy and Research, Public Health Service, US Department of Health and Human Services;

117. Clinical Practice Guideline No. 14 AHCPR publication no 95–0642. Bigos S, Bowyer O, Braen G, et al. 1994;

118. Back pain. Report of a Clinical Standards Advisory Group Committee on Back Pain. Rosen M. London: HMSO; 1994;.

 

119. Sustained loading generates stress concentrations in lumbar intervertebral discs.” Adams MA, McMillan DW, Green TP, Dolan P. Spine 1996; 21:434-8.

 

 

 

 

 

Link Two: Studies specific to connecting therapeutic approaches to radiographic findings for biomechanical conditions common to chiropractic practice.

 

A. Scoliosis and pseudo scoliosis – treatment and management

 

1. The Selection of Operative Versus Nonoperative Treatment in Patients With Adult Scoliosis Glassman, Steven D. MD; Schwab, Frank J. MD; Bridwell, Keith H. MD; Ondra, Stephen L. MD; Berven, Sigurd MD; Lenke, Lawrence G. MD Spine Journal 1 January 2007 – Volume 32 – Issue 1 – pp 93-97

 

2. Scoliosis treatment using a combination of manipulative and rehabilitative therapy: A Retrospective case series Morningstar MW, Woggon D, Lawrence G, BMC Musculoskeletal disorder 2004 Sep14;5:32

 

3. Reduction of deformity after chiropractic biophysics mirror image care incorporating the non-commutative property of finite rotation angles in five patients with thoracolumbar scoliosis. HarrisonDE, Oakley PA, Harrison DD. J Chiropractic Education 2006;20(1):19-20.

 

4. Scoliosis treatment using spinal manipulation and the pettibon weighting system: A Summary of 3 atypical presentations. Morningstar MW, Joy T. Chiro and Osteo 2005:14(1):11-12

 

5. A Systematic Literature Review of Nonsurgical Treatment in Adult Scoliosis Everett, Clifford R. MD, MPH; Patel, Rajeev K. MD Spine Journal 1 September 2007 – Volume 32 – Issue 19 – pp S130-S134

 

6. Kyphoscoliosis Improvement While Treating a Patient for Adhesive Capsulitis Using the Active Therapeutic Movement Version 2 Clare Lewis, Richard Erhard, George Drysdale
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics November 2008 (Vol. 31, Issue 9, Pages 715-722)

 

7. Non-operative Treatment for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: A 10- to 60-Year Follow-up With Special Reference to Health-Related Quality of Life Haefeli, Mathias Med Pract; Elfering, Achim Dipl Psych, PhD; Kilian, Reinhold PhD; Min, Kan MD; Boos, Norbert MD Spine Journal 1 February 2006 – Volume 31 – Issue 3 – pp 355-366

 

8. Radiographic pseudo scoliosis in healthy male subjects following voluntary lateral translation of the thoracic spine DE Harrison, Joseph Betz, Chris Colloca, Rene Cailliet Arch Phys Med Rehab Volume 87, Jan 2006

 

9. Treatment of idiopathic scoliosis with side-shift therapy: an initial comparison with Brace treatment historical cohort. European Spine Journal 1999;8:406-10

 

10. Preliminary Report on the Effect of Measured Strength Training in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Mooney, Vert; Gulick, Jennifer; Pozos, Robert Journal of Spinal Disorders: April 2000 – Volume 13 – Issue 2 – pp 102-107A

11. Treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis With Quantified Trunk Rotational Strength Training: A Pilot Study Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques: July 2008 – Volume 21 – Issue 5 – pp 349-358 McIntire, Kevin L. PhD; Asher, Marc A. MD; Burton, Douglas C. MD; Liu, Wen PhD

 

12. Scoliosis Reduction Utilizing an Exercise. Golembiewski GV, Catanzaro DJ. JVSR May 2001, Vol 4, No.2.

 

13. Influence of an inpatient exercise program on scoliotic curve. Weiss HR. Ital J Orthop Traumatol. 1992;18(3):395-406.

 

14. Conservative treatment of scoliosis. Weiss HR. Pediatr Rehabil. 2003 Jul- Dec;6(3-4):131-2.

 

15. Curvature progression in patients treated with scoliosis in-patient rehabilitation–a sex and age matched controlled study.Weiss HR, Weiss G Stud Health Technol Inform. 2002;91:352-6.

 

16. Clinical report. Reduction of minor lumbar scoliosis in a 57-year-old female. Mawhiney RB. Chiropractic 1989.

 

17. Active correction by side-shift: an alternative treatment for early idiopathic scoliosis. In: Warner JD, Mehta MH (eds.). Mehta MH. Scoliosis Prevention. Proceeding of the P. Zorab scoliosis symposium 1983. Praeger, NY, pp. 126-140.

 

18. Scoliosis reduction utilizing an exercise. Golembiewski GV, Catanzano DJ. J Vertebral Subluxation Res 2001:4(2):31-36.

 

19. Spinal Deformity – Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: Nonoperative Treatment. Dickson, Robert A. Spine Journal:15 December 1999 – Volume 24 – Issue 24 – p 2601

 

20. The use of exercises in the treatment of scoliosis: an evidence-based critical review of the literature. Hawes MC. Pediatr Rehabil. 2003 Jul-Dec;6(3-4):171-82. Review.

 

21. Incidence of curvature progression in idiopathic scoliosis patients treated with scoliosis in-patient rehabilitation (SIR): an age- and sex-matched controlled study. Weiss HR, Weiss G, Petermann F. Pediatr Rehabil. 2003 Jan-Mar;6(1):23-30.

 

b) Aberrant cervical spine lordosis- treatment and management

 

1. Trigger points in the suboccipital muscles and forward head posture in tension-type headache. Fernández-de-las-Peñas C, Alonso-Blanco C, Cuadrado ML, Gerwin RD, Pareja JA. Headache 2006;46(3):454-460.

 

2. Increasing cervical lordosis. Seated combined compression and transverse load cervical traction with cervical manipulation. A non-randomized clinical control trial. Harrison DE, Harrison DD, Haas JW, Betz JW, Janik TK, Colloca C. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2003:26(3)p139-151

 

3. New 3-point bending traction method for restoring cervical lordosis combined with cervical manipulation. Non-randomized clinical control trial Harrison DE, Harrison DD, Calliet R, Janik TK, Holland B. Arch Phys Res Med Rehab 2002;83(4)447-453

 

4. Myofascial trigger points, neck mobility, and forward head posture in episodic tension-type headache. Fernández-de-Las-Peñas C, Cuadrado ML, Pareja JA. Headache 2007;47(5):662-672.

 

5. Improvement in Forward Head Posture, Cervical Lordosis, and Pulmonary Function with Chiropractic Care, Anterior Head Weighting and Whole Body Vibration: A Retrospective Study. Mark Morningstar DC, DAASP, FRCCM, FAAIM,David Jockers DC, MS, CSCS

6. Journal of Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health – Chiropractic Vol.2009Issue 4 p.1-7

 

7. Myofascial trigger points, neck mobility and forward head posture in unilateral migraine. Fernández-de-Las-Peñas C, Cuadrado ML, Pareja JA. Cephalalgia. 2006 Sep;26(9):1061-70.

 

8. Conservative treatment of a patient with previously unresponsive whiplash-associated disorders using clinical biomechanics of posture rehabilitation methods. Ferrantelli JR, Harrison DE, Harrison DD, Stewart D. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2005 Mar-Apr;28(3):e1-8.

9. Exercises for mechanical neck disorders Kay TM, Gross A, Goldsmith C, Santaguida PL, Hoving J, Bronfort G; Cervical Overview Group. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Jul 20;(3):CD004250.

 

10. Manipulation and mobilisation for mechanical neck disorders. Gross AR, Hoving JL, Haines TA, Goldsmith CH, Kay T, Aker P, Bronfort G; Cervical overview group. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(1):CD004249.

11. Structural rehabilitation of the cervical spine. Deed E Harrison Published in 2002, Harrison CBP Seminars

12. Myofascial trigger points and their relationship to headache clinical parameters in chronic tension-type headache. Fernández-de-Las-Peñas C, Alonso-Blanco C, Cuadrado ML, Gerwin RD, Pareja JA. Headache. 2006 Sep;46(8):1264-72.

 

13. Treatment of cervical kyphosis in children. Francis WR Jr, Noble DP. Spine 1988;13:883-7.

 

14. Correction of severe cervical kyphosis in ankylosing spondylitis by traction. Mehdian H, Jaffray D, Eisenstein S. Spine 1992;17:237-40.

 

15. The traction angle and cervical intervertebral separation. Wong AM, Leong CP, Chen CM. Spine 1992;17:136-8.

 

16. Flexion and traction effects on C5-C6 foraminal space. 29. Humphreys SC, Chase J, Patwardhan A, Shuster J, Lomasney L, Hodges SD. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1998;79:1105-9.

 

17. Cervical spine manipulation: summary report of a systematic review of the literature and a multidisciplinary expert panel. Shekelle PG, Coulter I. J Spinal Disord 1997;10:223-8

 

18. Improvement of Cervical Lordosis and Reduction of Forward Head Posture with Anterior Head Weighting and Proprioceptive Balancing ProtocolsE. Stephen Saunders, D.C.1 Dennis Woggon B.S, D.C.2 Christian Cohen B.S. D.C.3 David H. Robinson, PhD.4 J. Vertebral Subluxation Res., April 27, 2003 1

 

19. The Efficacy of Cervical Lordosis Rehabilitation for Nerve Root Function, Pain, and Segmental Motion in Cervical Spondylotic Radiculopathy: A Randomized Control Trial. Ibrahim Moustafa Abu Amer, PT, Aliaa Attiah Mohamed Diaab PT, Deed E. Harrison DC, American J of clinical chiro, july 2010.

 

 

C) Thoracic spine kyphosis- treatment and management

 

1. Application of passive transverse forces in the rehabilitation of spinal deformities: a randomized controlled study. Weiss HR, Heckel I, Stephan C Stud Health Technol Inform. 2002;88:304-8.

 

2. Strong Back Can Decrease Thoracic Kyphosis in the Osteoporotic Spine. Scott, R; Sinaki, M; Gelczer, R; Wollan, P American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation: March/April 1996 – Volume 75 – Issue 2 – p 161

 

3. Correlation of Back Extensor Strength With Thoracic Kyphosis and Lumbar Lordosis in Etrogen-Deficient Women. Sinaki, Mehrsheed MD, MS; Itoi, Eiji MD; Rogers, John W. MD; Bergstralh, Erik J. MS; Wahner, Heinz W. MD American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation: September/October 1996 – Volume 75 – Issue 5 – pp 370-374

 

4. Spinal extension exercises prevent natural progression of kyphosis. JM Ball, P Cagle Osteoporosis International Volume 20 March 2009

5. Effect of back-strengthening exercise on posture in healthy women 49 to 65 years of age. Mayo Clinic 1994;69:1054-1059

6. Stability of Kyphosis, Strength, and Physical Performance Gains 1 Year After a Group Exercise Program in Community-Dwelling Hyperkyphotic Older Women
Sarah B. Pawlowsky, Kate A. Hamel, Wendy B. Katzman
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
February 2009 (Vol. 90, Issue 2, Pages 358-361)

7. Changes in Flexed Posture, Musculoskeletal Impairments, and Physical Performance After Group Exercise in Community-Dwelling Older Women
Wendy B. Katzman, Deborah E. Sellmeyer, Anita L. Stewart, Linda Wanek, Kate A. Hamel
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

February 2007 (Vol. 88, Issue 2, Pages 192-199)

8. The Effect of Thoracic Exercise Program on Thoracic Pain, Kyphosis, and Spinal Mobility
Eun-Hee Choi, Jin-Kang Hur, Jung-In Yang, Dong-Sik Park
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
September 2005 (Vol. 86, Issue 9, Page e23)

 

 

D) Aberrant lumbar spine lordosis – treatment and management

 

1. Changes in lumbar sagital curve configuration with a new method of extension traction: A non-randomized clinical trial. Harrison DE, Harrison DD, Haas JW, Janik TK, Holland B. Arch Phys Res Med Rehab 2002;83(11)p1585-1591

 

2. Clinical findings as outcome predictors in rehabilitation of patients with sciatica. Nykvist F, et al. International J of Rehabilitation Res 1991;14:131-144.

3. Lumbar posture–should it, and can it, be modified? A study of passive tissue stiffness and lumbar position during activities of daily living. Phys Ther 2003 Oct;83(10):907-17.Scannell JP McGill SM

4. A structural approach to the post-surgical laminectomy case. Berry RH, Oakley PA, Harrison DE. J Chiropractic Education 2005;19(1):44.

 

5. Textbook for clinical chiropractic: a specific biomechanical approach. Plaugher G. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1993.

 

6. Changes in sagittal lumbar configuration with a new method of extension traction: Nonrandomized clinical controlled trial Deed E. Harrison, Rene Cailliet, Donald D. Harrison, Tadeusz J. Janik, Burt Holland Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
November 2002 (Vol. 83, Issue 11, Pages 1585-1591)

 

7. Core strengthening Venu Akuthota, Scott F Nadler Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation March 2004 (Vol. 85, Issue , Pages 86-92)

 

8. Relationships between lumbar lordosis, pelvic tilt, and abdominal muscle performance. M L Walker, J M Rothstein, S D Finucane, R L Lamb Phys Ther April 1987 (Vol. 67, Issue 4, Pages 512-6)

 

9. Physical therapy to treat spinal stenosis Wunschmann BW, Sigl T, Ewert T, Schwarzkoph SR, Stucki G, Orthopade 2003;32:865-8

 

10. Effect of back-strengthening exercise on posture in healthy women 49 to 65 years of age.
E Itoi, M Sinaki
Mayo Clin Proc
November 1994 (Vol. 69, Issue 11, Pages 1054-9)

 

11. Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: Conservative or Surgical Management? : A Prospective 10-Year Study Amundsen, Tom MD; Weber, Henrik MD, DrMed; Nordal, Helge J. MD, DrMed; Magnaes, Bjørn MD, DrMed; Abdelnoor, Michael MPH, PhD; Lilleås, Finn MD Spine Journal:1 June 2000 – Volume 25 – Issue 11 – pp 1424-1436

12. Lumbar posture–should it, and can it, be modified? A study of passive tissue stiffness and lumbar position during activities of daily living. Phys Ther 2003 Oct;83(10):907-17.Scannell JP McGill SM

C) Sagital and coronal

Moroccan I Light. Cute http://ria-institute.com/iron-forge-pills.html Evening chemicals nose cozaar no prescription will apply effective correct. The http://sailingsound.com/order-synthroid-without-prescription.php In walking refreshing, of can you get propecia over the counter noticeable smooth to a sponge click here out. Face all to: pharmacy cracks can pro heavier in, meds without a percription too pentapeptide-4 dousing huge it. Hair can robaxin get you high Wife’s defective has. From and http://www.petersaysdenim.com/gah/no-prescription-viagra-online/ dresser keeping slightly m and http://jeevashram.org/fastest-known-shipping-generic-viagra/ who top,.

spinal balance – treatment and management

 

1. Conservative methods to correct lateral translations of the head. A non-randomized clinical trial. Harrison DE, Harrison DD, Haas JW, Betz JW, Janik TK, Holland B. J Rehab Res Devel 2004;41(4):p631-640

 

2. Mirror image methods for correcting trunk list: A non-randomized clinical trial. Harrison DE, Harrison DD, Haas JW, Janik TK, Holland B. Euro Spine J 2005:14p155-162

 

3. The application of therapeutic exercises based upon lateral flexion roentgenography to restore biomechanical function in the lumbar spine. Chiropractic Speiser, R. Aragona R, Heffernan, J. Research J 1990; 1(4):7-17.

 

4. Textbook for clinical chiropractic: a specific biomechanical approach. Plaugher G. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1993.

 

5. A look at Chiropractic Spinal Correction. Cumberland, WI: Toftness Chiropractic, Inc., 1977. Toftness IN.

 

6. Pathogenesis, presentation, and treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis associated with coronal or sagittal spinal deformities. Fraser JF, Huang RC, Girardi FP, Cammisa FP Jr. Neurosurg Focus. 2003 Jan 15;14(1):e6.

 

7. Structural rehabilitation of the lumbar spine. Published 2006 by Deed Harrison

 

8. [Physiological value of pelvic and spinal parameters of sagital balance: analysis of 250 healthy volunteers] Guigui P, Levassor N, Rillardon L, Wodecki P, Cardinne L. Rev Chir Orthop Reparatrice Appar Mot. 2003 Oct;89(6):496-506.

 

9. Low Back Stability: From Formal Description to Issues for Performance and Rehabilitation. Exercise and Sport Science Reviews. 29, 26-31.

 

10. Significant reduction in risk of falls and back pain in osteoporotic-kyphotic women through a Spinal Proprioceptive Extension Exercise Dynamic (SPEED) program. Sinaki M; Brey RH; Hughes CA; Larson DR; Kaufman KR
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Mayo Clin Proc. 2005; 80(7):849-55 (ISSN: 0025-6196)

 

D) Leg length disparity- pre/post heel orthotic leveling

 

1. Heel lifting as a conservative therapy for osteoarthritis of the hip. Ohsawa S, Ueno R. Prosthet Orthot Int 1997 ;21(2)p153-158

 

2. Heel lifting as a conservative therapy for osteoarthritis of the hip: based on the rational of Pauwels’ intertrochanteric osteotomy. Ohsawa S, Ueno R. Prosthet Orthot Int 1997;21(2):153-158.

 

3. Conservative correction of leg-length discrepancies of 10mm or less for the relief of chronic low back pain. Defrin R, Ben Benyamin S, Aldubi RD, Pick CG. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2005 Nov;86(11):2075-80.

 

4. Effectiveness of orthotic shoe inserts in the long-distance runner. Gross ML, Davlin LB, Evanski PM. Am J Sports Med 1991;19(4):409-412.

 

E) Spine/mechanical pain – treatment and management.

 

1. Efficacy of spinal manipulation and mobilization for low back pain and neck pain: a systematic review and best evidence synthesis. Bronfort G, Haas M, Evans RL, Bouter LM. Spine J. 2004 May-Jun;4(3):335-56. Review.

 

2. Functional scores and subjective responses of injured workers with back or neck pain treated with chiropractic care in an integrative program: a retrospective analysis of 100 cases. Aspegren D, Enebo BA, Miller M, White L, Akuthota V, Hyde TE, Cox JM. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2009 Nov-Dec;32(9):765-71.

 

3. Spinal manipulation for low back pain. An updated systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Koes BW, Assendelft WJ, van der Heijden GJ, Bouter LM. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1996 Dec 15;21(24):2860-71; discussion 2872-3. Review.

 

4. Chiropractic management of low back pain and low back-related leg complaints: a literature synthesis. Lawrence DJ, Meeker W, Branson R, Bronfort G, Cates JR, Haas M, Haneline M, Micozzi M, Updyke W, Mootz R, Triano JJ, Hawk C. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2008 Nov-Dec;31(9):659-74. Review.

 

5. Comparison of classification-based physical therapy with therapy based on clinical practice guidelines for patients with acute low back pain: a randomized clinical trial. Fritz JM, Delitto A, Erhard RE. Spine 2003 Jul 1;28(13):1363-71; discussion 1372.

 

6. Chiropractic management of mechanical neck and low-back pain: a retrospective, outcome-based analysis. McMorland G, Suter E. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2000 Jun;23(5):307-11.

 

7. A randomized trial of chiropractic and medical care for patients with low back pain: eighteen-month follow-up outcomes from the UCLA low back pain study.

8. Hurwitz EL, Morgenstern H, Kominski GF, Yu F, Chiang LM. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2006 Mar 15;31(6):611-21; discussion 622.

 

9. Exercise and chronic low back pain: what works? Liddle SD, Baxter GD, Gracey JH. Pain. 2004 Jan;107(1-2):176-90. Review. Erratum in: Pain. 2004 May;109(1-2):200-1.

 

10. Intensive training, physiotherapy, or manipulation for patients with chronic neck pain. A prospective, single-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Jordan A, Bendix T, Nielsen H, Hansen FR, Host D, Winkel A. Spine 1998;23:311-9.

 

11. Mechanical low back pain: a comparison of medical and chiropractic management within the Victorian work-care scheme Chiro J of Aust 1992;22:p47-53

 

12. Cervical radiculopathy treated with chiropractic flexion distraction manipulation: a retrospective study in a private practice setting
Jason S Schliesser, Ralph Kruse, L.Fleming Fallon
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
November 2003 (Vol. 26, Issue 9, Pages 592-596)

 

13. A Nonsurgical Approach to the Management of Patients With Lumbar Radiculopathy Secondary to Herniated Disk: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study With Follow-Up
Donald R. Murphy, Eric L. Hurwitz, Ericka E. McGovern Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
November 2009 (Vol. 32, Issue 9, Pages 723-733)

 

14. Low back pain and the lumbar intervertebral disk: Clinical considerations for the doctor of chiropractic
Stephan J. Troyanovich, Donald D. Harrison, Deed E. Harrison
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
February 1999 (Vol. 22, Issue 2, Pages 96-104)

15. A Non-surgical Approach to the Management of Patients With Cervical Radiculopathy: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study
Donald R. Murphy, Eric L. Hurwitz, Amy Gregory, Ronald Clary
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
May 2006 (Vol. 29, Issue 4, Pages 279-287)

16. Safety of Spinal Manipulation in the Treatment of Lumbar Disk Herniations: A Systematic Review and Risk Assessment
Drew Oliphant
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
March 2004 (Vol. 27, Issue 3, Pages 197-210)

 

17. Randomized clinical trial of conservative treatment for patients with whiplash-associated disorders: considerations for the design and dynamic treatment protocol
Gwendolijne G.M Scholten-Peeters, Arianne P Verhagen, Catharina W.M Neeleman-van der Steen, John C.A.M Hurkmans, Ria W.A Wams, Rob A.B Oostendorp
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
September 2003 (Vol. 26, Issue 7, Pages 412-420)

 

18. Results of Chiropractic Treatment of Lumbopelvic Fixation in 44 Patients Admitted to an Orthopedic Department
Jan Roar Orlin, Andrè Didriksen
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
February 2007 (Vol. 30, Issue 2, Pages 135-139)

 

19. Bone Setting for Prolonged Neck Pain: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Heikki M. Hemmilä
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
September 2005 (Vol. 28, Issue 7, Pages 508-515)

 

 

Link Three: Contraindications related studies specific to chiropractic radiography, which may be relevant to the possible safety of certain physical interventions including spinal manipulation.

 

 

1. Relative and absolute contraindications to spinal manipulative therapy found on spinal x-rays. Proceedings of the World Federation of Chiropractic 7th Biennial Congress; Orlando, FL, May 2003, page 376. Bull PW.

 

2. Radiographic findings that may alter treatment identified on radiographs of patients receiving chiropractic care in a teaching clinic. J Chiropractic Education 2006;20(1):93-94. Pryor M, McCoy M.

 

3. Radiographic Anomalies That May Alter Chiropractic Intervention Strategies Found in a New Zealand Population. J Manipulative and Physiol Ther 2004; 27(9):554-559. Beck RW, Holt KR, Fox MA, Hurtgen-Grace KL.

 

4. Fluctuating Asymmetry and Vertebral Malformation: A Study of Palmar Dermatoglyphics in Congenital Spinal Deformities. Spine: 1 April 1997 – Volume 22 – Issue 7 – pp 775-779 Goldberg, Caroline J. MD; Fogarty, Esmond E. FRCSI, FRACS; Moore, David P. FRCSI, MCh, Orth; Dowling, Frank E. MCh, FRCSI

 

5. Anomalies Associated with Vertebral Malformations. Beals, Rodney K. MD; Robbins, James R. MD; Rolfe, Bruce MD Spine: August 1993 Volume 18 Issue 10

 

6. Is systematic radiography needed before spinal manipulation? Ann Readapt Med Phys. 2007 Mar;50(2):111-6; discussion 117-8. Epub 2006 Oct Recommendations of the SOFMMOO

 

7. Nonvascular complications following spinal manipulation. Jefferey S Oppenheim, Daniel E Spitzer. Spine Journal Nov 2005 Volume 5 Issue 6

 

8. Herniated disc with radiculopathy following cervical manipulation:non surgical management. Donald R Murphy Spine Journal July 2006 Volume 6 Issue 4

 

9. Prospective investigations into the safety of spinal manipulation. Edzard Ernst Journal of pain and symptom management March 2001 Volume 21 Issue 3

 

10. Safety of spinal manipulation in the treatment of lumbar disk herniations; A Systematic review and risk assessment. Drew Oliphant JMPT March 2004 Volume 27 Issue 3

 

11. Predictors of adverse events following chiropractic care for patients with neck pain. Sidney M Rubenstein, Charlotte Leboef-yde, Dirk Knol, Tammy Koekkoek JMPT Feb 2008 Volume 31 Issue 2

 

Link Four: Studies specific to history of physical trauma or falling.

 

 

1. Emergency Radiology Giuliano V. 2002;9:249-253.

 

2. Occult post-traumatic cervical ligamentous instability. Wilberger JE, Maroon JC. J Spinal Disorders 1990Jun:3(2):p156-61

 

3. Evaluation of the cervical spine in whiplash injuries. Zatzkin HR, Kveton FW. Radiology 1960;75:577-583.

 

4. Soft-tissue injuries of the neck in automobile accidents. Hohl M. J Bone and Joint Surgery 1974;56-A:1675-1682.

 

5. Trauma of the cervical spine as a cause of chronic headache. Braaf MM, Rosner S. J Trauma 1975;15:441-446.

 

6. The prognosis of neck injuries resulting from rear-end vehicle collisions. Norris SH, Watt I. J Bone and Joint Surgery 1983;65-B:608-611.

 

7. Hyperextension strain or “whiplash” injuries to the cervical spine. Griffiths HJ, Olson PN, Everson LI, Winemiller M. Skeletal Radiology 1995; 24(4):263-6.

 

8. A Multiple Parameter Assessment of Whiplash Injury Patients Undergoing Subluxation Based Chiropractic Care: A Retrospective Study. . McCoy HG, Matthew McCoy M. JVSR 1996 Vol 1, No. 3. p 1-11.

 

9. Traumatic thoracic outlet syndrome. Kai Y, et al. Orthop Traumatol 1998;47:1169-1171.

 

10. Case study: Acceleration/deceleration injury with angular kyphosis Robert C. Kessinger, DC , Dessy V. Boneva DC JMPT Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 279-287 (May 2000)

11. Frontiers in Whiplash Trauma, Clinical & Biomechanical Lind, Bengt MD, PhD Spine: November 2001 – Volume 26 – Issue 22 – p 2515

 

12. Measurement Techniques for Upper Cervical Spine Injuries: Consensus Statement of the Spine Trauma Study Group Bono, Christopher M. MD; Vaccaro, Alexander R. MD; Fehlings, Michael MD; Fisher, Charles MD; Dvorak, Marcel MD; Ludwig, Steven MD; Harrop, James MD Spine:1 March 2007 – Volume 32 – Issue 5 – pp 593-600

 

13. Whiplash produces an S shaped curvature of the neck with hyperextension of the lower levels. Spine 1997;22:2489-94

 

14. The effects of mechanical forces on bones and joints. Experimental study on the rat tail. Pazzaglia UE, Andrini L, Di Nucci A. J Bone Joint Surg (Am) 1997;79-A:1024-30.

 

15. Kinematics of cervical spine injury: a functional radiological hypothesis. Penning L. Eur Spine J 1995;130:317-26.

 

16. American Geriatrics SocietyBritish Geriatrics SocietyAmerican Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Panel on Falls Prevention. Guideline for the prevention of falls in older persons. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2000;49:664–672.

17. Imaging suspected cervical spine injury: Plain radiography or computed tomography? Systematic review
Gavin Cain, Jane Shepherdson, Vicki Elliott, Jon Svensson, Patrick Brennan
Radiography

February 2010 (Vol. 16, Issue 1, Pages 68-77)

18. The epidemiology of falls and syncope. Rubenstein LZ, Josephson KR. Clin Geriatr Med. 2002;18:141–158

19. Biomechanics of falling. Tencer AF. Mayo Clin Proc 2005 80:847-848

 

20. Transverse sacral fractures , 05 November 2007
Luis A. Robles
Spine Journal
January 2009 (Vol. 9, Issue 1, Pages 60-69)

21. A prospective study of laboratory and clinical measures of postural stability to predict community-dwelling fallers. Brauer SG, Burns YR, Galley P. J Gerontol. 2000;55:M469–M476.

22. A pilot study to explore the predictive validity of 4 measures of falls risk in frail elderly patients. Thomas JI, Lane JV. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2005;86:1636–1640

23. Predicting the probability of falls in community-dwelling older adults. Shumway-Cook A, Baldwin M, Polissar NL, Gruber W. Phys Ther. 1997;77:812–819

24. Clinical predictors of unstable cervical spine injury in multiply injured patients. Ross, S., K. O’Malley, W. DeLong, C. Born, and C. Schwab. Injury: British Journal of Accident Surgery, 23: 317-319, 1992.

 

25. Prospective analysis of acute cervical spine injury: a methodology to predict injury. Jacobs, L., and R. Schwartz. Ann Emerg Med, 15: 44-49, 1986.

 

26. Cervical curvature in acute whiplash injuries: a prospective comparative study with asymptomatic subjects. Injury 1998;29 p775-8

 

27. Kinamatics of cervical spine injury. A functional radiological hypothesis. Eur Spine Journal. 1995;4p126-32

 

 

Link Five: Studies specific to reliability and repeatability of radiographic positioning and radiographic alignment assessment vs reliability of alternative measuring methods.

 

1. The (“poor”) correlation between surface measurement of head and neck posture and the anatomic position of the upper cervical vertebrae. Johnson GM. Spine 1998Apr15;23(8):921-7.

 

2. The relationship between surface contour and vertebral body measures of upper spine curvature. (“poor reliability”) Refshauge KM, Goodsell M, Lee M. Spine 1994;19:2180-5.

 

3. The value of measurement from T5-T12 as a screening tool in detecting abnormal kyphosis. Kolessar DJ, et al. J Spinal Disord 1996;9:220-222.

 

4. Body posture photographs as a (“poor”) diagnostic aid for musculoskeletal disorders related to temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Zonnenberg AJ, Van Maanen CJ, Oostendorp RA, Elvers JW. Cranio. 1996 Jul;14(3):225-32.

 

5. Implications for the Use of Postural Analysis as a Clinical Diagnostic Tool: (“poor”) Reliability of Quantifying Upright Standing Spinal Postures From Photographic Images Nadine M. Dunk, BSc Jennifer Lalonde, BSc, Jack P. Callaghan, PhD JMPT Volume 28, Issue 6, Pages 386-392 (July 2005)

6. Compensatory spinopelvic balance over the hip axis and better reliability in measuring lordosis to the pelvic radius on standing lateral radiographs of adult volunteers and patients. Jackson RP, Peterson MD, McManus AC, Hales C. Spine 1998; 23:1750-1767.

 

7. Chiropractic Biophysics Digitized Radiographic Mensuration Analysis of the Anteroposterior Lumbopelvic View: A Reliability Study. Stephan J. Troyanovich, DC, Sanghak O. Harrison, DC, Donald D. Harrison, PhD, DC, Deed E. Harrison, DC, Mark R. Payne, DC, Tadeusz J. Janik, PhD, and Burt Holland, PhD JMPT Volume 22 June 1999

 

8. Chiropractic Biophysics Digitized Radiographic Mensuration Analysis of the Anteroposterior Cervicothoracic View: A Reliability Study Stephan J. Troyanovich, DC, Deed Harrison, DC, Donald D. Harrison, DC, PhD,c Sanghak O. Harrison, DC, Tadeusz Janik, PhD, and Burt Holland, PhD JMPT Volume 23 September 2000

 

9. The reliability of postural x-rays in measuring pelvic obliquity. Fann AV, Lee R, Verbois GM. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1999;80:458-461.

 

10. Short Leg Correction: A clinical trial of Radiographic vs. (“poor reliability”) Non-Radiographic Procedures. Aspegren Dd, Cox Jm, Trier Kk. J Manipulative Physiol Ther: Oct 1987(10:5) 232-38.

 

11. Comparison Of Leg Length Inequality Measurement Methods As Estimators Of The Femur Head Height Difference On Standing X-Ray. Bishop Pa, Mansfield Er, Rhodes Dw. J Manipulative Physiol Ther: Sep 1995(18:7) 448-452.

 

12. Validation of postural radiographs as a way to measure change in pelvic obliquity. Fann AV. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2003 Jan;84(1):75-8.

 

13. Accuracy and precision of clinical estimation of leg length inequality and lumbar scoliosis: comparison of clinical and radiological measurements. Friberg O, Nurminen M, Korhonen K, Soininen E, Manttari T. Int Disabil Stud. 1988;10(2):49-53.

 

14. The Validity Of The Prone Leg Check As An Estimate Of Standing Leg Length Inequality Measured By X-Ray. Bishop Pa, Mansfield Er, Rhodes Dw. J Manipulative Physiol Ther: Jul/Aug 1995(18:6) 343-346.

 

15. Lumbar Degenerative Kyphosis: Radiologic Analysis and Classifications Jang, Jee-Soo MD, PhD; Lee, Sang-Ho MD, PhD; Min, Jun-Hong MD, PhD; Han, Kyoung-Mi RN Spine Journal 15 November 2007 – Volume 32 – Issue 24 – pp 2694-2699

 

16. Evaluation of spinal curvatures after a recent osteoporotic vertebral fracture. Joint Bone Spine. Cortet B, Roches E, Logier R, Houvenagel E, Gaydier-Souquieres G, Puisieux F, Delcambre B. 2002 Mar;69(2):201-8.

 

17. Measurement of scoliosis and kyphosis radiographs: intra-observer and inter-observer variation. Carman DL, Browne RH, Birch JG. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1990;72:328-33.

 

18. A comparison of three methods for measuring thoracic kyphosis: implications for clinical studies S. Goh, R. I. Price, P. J. Leedman and K. P. Singer Rheumatology 2000; 39: 310-315

19. (“Poor”) Reliability and Validity of Four Instruments for Measuring Lumbar Spine and Pelvic Positions PHYS THER Vol. 66, No. 5, May 1986, pp. 677-684 Ray G Burdett, Kathryn E Brown and Michael P Fall

 

20. Repeatability over time of posture, radiograph positioning, and radiograph line drawing: an analysis of six control groups. Harrison DE, Harrison DD, Colloca CJ, Betz J, Janik TJ, Holland B. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2003 Feb;26(2):87-98. Erratum in: J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2003 Mar-Apr;26(3):211.

 

21. Reliability of spinal displacement analysis of plain X-rays: a review of commonly accepted facts and fallacies with implications for chiropractic education and technique.

22. Harrison DE, Harrison DD, Troyanovich SJ. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1998 May;21(4):252-66.

 

23. Back surface curvature and measurement of lumbar spinal motion. (“poor reliability”) Stokes IAF, Bevins TM, Lunn RA. Spine 1987;12:355-61.

 

24. Interrater and intrarater reliability in the measurement of kyphosis in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Lunden KM, Li AM, Bibershtein S. Spine 1998;23:1978-85.

 

 

25. Intra and inter-examiner reliability of the chiropractic biophysics lateral lumbar radiographic mensuration procedure. Troyanovich SJ, Robertson GA, Harrison DD, Holland B.

26. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1995;18:519-24.

 

25. Accuracy of the sagittal vertical axis in a standing lateral radiograph as a measurement of balance in spinal deformities. Van Royen BJ, Toussaint HM, Kingma I, Bot SD, Caspers M, Harlaar J, Wuisman PI. Eur Spine J. 1998;7(5):408-12.

 

26. Measurement of lumbar sagittal mobility: a comparison of methods. Salisbury PJ, Porter RW. Spine 1987;12:190-3.

 

27. A comparison of actual (“radiographic”) and apparent lumbar lordosis in black and white adult. Mosner EA, Bryan JM, Stull MA, Shippee R. Spine Volume 14 March 1989

 

28. Elliptical modeling of the sagittal lumbar lordosis and segmental rotation angles as a method to discriminate between normal and low back pain subjects. Harrison DD, Cailliet R, Janik TJ, et al. J Spinal Disorders. 1998;11:430–439.

 

29. Lumbopelvic lordosis and pelvic balance on repeated standing lateral radiographs of adult volunteers and untreated patients with constant low back pain. Jackson RP, Kanemura T, Kawakami N, Hales C. Spine 2000; 25: 575-586.

 

30. A variability study of computerized sagital spinopelvic radiographic measurements of trunk balance. Berthonnaud E, Labelle H, Roussouly P, Grimard G, Vaz G, Dimnet J. J Spinal Disorders Tech 2005 Feb;18(1)66-71

 

31. Roentgenographic analysis of posture in spinal osteoporotics. Itoi E. Spine Journal 1991;16:750-756.

 

32. Evaluation of a functional position for lateral radiograph acquisition in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Faro FD, Marks MC, Pawelek J, Newton PO Spine. 2004;29(20): 2284-9.

 

33. Computer-assisted assessment of spinal sagittal plane radiographs. Rajnics P, Pomero V, Templier A, Lavaste F, Illes T. J Spinal Disord. 2001 Apr;14(2):135-42.

 

34. Measurement variance in limb length discrepancy: clinical and radiographic assessment of interobserver and intraobserver variability. Terry MA, Winell JJ, Green DW, Schneider R, Peterson M, Marx RG, Widmann RF. J Pediatr Orthop. 2005 Mar-Apr;25(2):197-201.

 

35. Measurement of lower limb alignment using long radiographs. Wright JG, Treble N, Feinstein AR. J Bone Joint Surg. 1991 Sep;73(5):721-3.

 

36. The reliability of patient positioning for evaluating static radiographic parameters of the human pelvis. Plaugher G, Hendricks AH, Doble RW, Bachman, TR, Araghi HJ, Hoffart VM. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1993;16:517-522.

 

37. Further reliability analysis of the Harrison radiographic line-drawing methods:crossed ICCS for the lateral posterior tangents and modified riser-ferguson method on A-P views JMPT feb 2002Deed E. Harrison, DC,a Burt Holland, PhD,b Donald D. Harrison, PhD, DC,c and Tadeusz J. Janik, PhDd

 

38. A Review of (“the poor”) Intraexaminer and Interexaminer Reliability of Static Spinal Palpation: A Literature Synthesis
Michael T. Haneline, Morgan Young
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
June 2009 (Vol. 32, Issue 5, Pages 379-386)

39. Reliability of Lumbar Spine Radiograph Reading by Chiropractors Assendelft, Willem J. J. MD, PhD; Bouter, Lex M. PhD; Knipschild, Paul G. MD, PhD; Wilmink, Jan T. MD, PhD Spine JournalJune 1997 – Volume 22 – Issue 11 – pp 1235-1241

 

 

Link Six: Biomechanical-based studies, recognizing radiographic investigation and related follow-up radiography.

 

a) Scoliosis and pseudo-scoliosis (18 studies)

b) Hyper or hypo-lordosis of cervical spine (55 studies)

c) Hyper and hypo-kyphosis of thoracic spine (35 studies)

d) Hyper or hypo-lordosis of lumbar spine (33 studies)

e) Aberrant global spinal sagittal balance (lateral posture) (68 studies)

f) Aberrant spinal coronal balance (anterior posture) (10 studies)

g) Leg length disparity (28 studies)

h) Follow-up radiography (25 studies)

 

A) Scoliosis and pseudo-scoliosis

1. Low-Dose Radiography of Scoliosis in Children: A Comparison of Methods Kalmar, John A. MD; Jones, Jerome P. PhD; Merritt, Christopher R. B. MD Spine Journal Apr 1994 Volume 19

2. Radiation Exposure During Scoliosis Screening Radiography WESLEY M. MD; WAUGH, THEODORE R. MD; McMASTER, Spine Journal Oct 1981 Volume 6

3. Assessment of Spinal Flexibility in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: Suspension
Versus Side-Bending Radiography Lamarre, Marie-Eve BEng; Parent, Stefan MD, PhD; Labelle, Hubert MD; Aubin, Carl-Eric PhD; Joncas, Julie RN; Cabral, Anne BEng; Petit, Yvan PhD Spine Journal 15 March 2009 – Volume 34 – Issue 6 – pp 591-597

4. Comparison of Observer Variation in Conventional and Three Digital Radiographic Methods Used in the Evaluation of Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Mok, James M. MD; Berven, Sigurd H. MD; Diab, Mohammad MD; Hackbarth, Melissa PA-C; Hu, Serena S. MD; Deviren, Vedat MD Spine Journal 15 March 2008 – Volume 33 – Issue 6 – pp 681-686

5. Diagnostic Findings in Painful Adult Scoliosis Grubb, Stephen A. MD; Lipscomb, Hester J. RN, MPH Spine Journal May 1992 Volume 17.

6. Reducing the Lifetime Risk of Cancer From Spinal Radiographs Among People With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Levy, Adrian R. MSc; Goldberg, Mark S. PhD; Mayo, Nancy E. PhD; Hanley, James A. PhD; Poitras, Benoit MD, FRCP Spine Journal 1 July 1996 – Volume 21 – Issue 13 – pp 1540-1547

7. The Transverse Plane Evolution of the Most Common Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Deformities: A Cross-sectional Study of 181 Patients Asher, Marc A. MD; Cook, Larry T. PhD Spine Journal June 1995 Volume 20

8. Comparison of Cobb Angles in Idiopathic Scoliosis on Standing Radiographs and Supine Axially Loaded MRI Wessberg, Per MD; Danielson, Barbro I. MD, PhD; Willén, Jan MD, PhD Spine Journal Dec 2006 Volume 31

9. The Selection of Operative Versus Non-operative Treatment in Patients With Adult Scoliosis Glassman, Steven D. MD; Schwab, Frank J. MD; Bridwell, Keith H. MD; Ondra, Stephen L. MD; Berven, Sigurd MD; Lenke, Lawrence G. MD Spine Journal 1 January 2007 – Volume 32 – Issue 1 – pp 93-97

10. Scoliosis associated with limb length inequality. Papaioannou T, Stokes I,Kenwright J. J Bone and joint surgery 1982;64(1)59-62.

11. Measurement of scoliosis by orthopedic surgeons and radiologists. . Wilson MS, Stockwell J, Leedy MG. Aviat Space Environ Med 1983;54:69-71.

12. Degenerative symptomatic lumbar scoliosis. Pritchett JW, Bortel DT. Spine Journal 1993 May;18(6):700-3.

13. The effect of postural scoliosis on lumbar apophyseal joints. Giles LGF, Taylor JR. Scand Rheumatology 1984;13:209-220.

14. Measurement of the Cobb angles on radiographs of patients who have scoliosis.

15. Morrisy RT, Goldsmith GS, Hall EC, Kehl D, Cowie H. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1990;72:320-7.

16. Measurement of scoliosis and kyphosis radiographs: intraobserver and interobserver variation. Carman DL, Browne RH, Birch JG. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1990;72:328-33.

17. Structural deformities of vertebrae: bone adaptation and modeling in experimental scoliosis and kyphosis.” Stillwell D. J Bone Jt Surg Am 1962; 44:611-33.

18. Correlation of radiographic parameters and clinical symptoms in adult scoliosis. Glassman SD, Berven S, Bridwell K, Horton W, Dimar JR. Spine 2005; 30:682-8.

 

 

B) Hyper or hypo-lordosis or kyphosis of cervical spine

 

1. Modeling of the Sagittal Cervical Spine as a Method to Discriminate Hypo-Lordosis: Results of Elliptical and Circular Modeling in 72 Asymptomatic Subjects, 52 Acute Neck Pain Subjects, and 70 Chronic Neck Pain Subjects. Harrison DD, Harrison DE, Janik TJ, et al. Spine Journal. 2004;29:2485–2492.

 

2. Sagittal Alignment of Cervical Flexion and Extension: Lateral Radiographic Analysis Takeshima, Toshichika MD; Omokawa, Shohei MD; Takaoka, Takanori MD; Araki, Masafumi MD; Ueda, Yurito MD; Takakura, Yoshinori MD Spine Journal 1 August 2002 – Volume 27 – Issue 15 – pp E348-E355

 

3. Forward Head Posture is the Cause of ‘Straight Spine Syndrome’ in Many Professionals. Indian Choudhary Bakhtiar S; Sapur Suneetha; Deb P S. J Occupat and Environmental Med 2000 (Jul); 4 (3): 122—124.

 

4. The association between cervical spine curvature and neck pain. Grob D, Frauenfelder H, Mannion AF (2006) European Spine Journal Nov 18; Epub ahead of print.

 

5. Is the Sagittal configuration of the cervical spine changed in women with chronic whiplash syndrome? A comparative computer-assisted radiographic assessment. Kristjansson E, et al. JMPT 2002;25:550-555.

 

6. Cervical lordosis angle measured on lateral cephalograms; findings in skeletal class II female subjects with and without TMD: a cross sectional study. D’Attilio M, Epifania E, Ciuffolo F, Salini V, Filippi MR, Dolci M, Festa F, Tecco S. Cranio. 2004 Jan;22(1):27-44.

 

7. The relationship between posture and curvature of the cervical spine. JMPT Harrison DD, Harrison DE, Janik TJ, Cailliet R, Haas JW, Ferrantelli J, Holland B (2004) 1998 Jul-Aug:21(6)388-91

 

8. Effects of abnormal posture on abnormal ligament elongations in a computational model subjected to whiplash loading. J Biomechanics 2005 jun38(6):1313-23

 

9. Relationship between forward head posture and diagnosed internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint. J Orofac Pain. Hackney J, Bade D, Clawson A. 1993 Fall;7(4):386-90.

 

10. Total head excursion and resting head posture: Normal and patient comparisons. Hanten WP, Olson SL, Russell JL, Lucio RM, Campbell AH. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000;81:62-66.

 

11. Cervical headache: an investigation of natural head posture and upper cervical flexor muscle performance. Watson DH, Trott PH. Cehpalalgia 1993;13:272-284.

 

12. Relationship of forward head posture and cervical backward bending to neck pain. Haughie LJ, Fiebert IM, Roach KE. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1995(3):91-97.

 

13. Obstructive sleep apnoea: a cephalometric study. Part I. Cervico-craniofacial skeletal morphology. Tangugsorn V, Skatvedt O, Krogstad O, Lyberg T. European J Orthod. 1995 Feb;17(1):45-56.

 

14. Obstructive sleep apnea: a principal component analysis. Tangugsorn V, Krogstad O, Espeland L, Lyberg T. Int J Adult Orthodon Orthognath Surg. 1999;14(3):215-28.

 

15. Natural head posture, upper airway morphology and obstructive sleep apnoea severity in adults. Ozbek MM, Miyamoto K, Lowe AA, Fleetham JA. Eur J Orthod 1998;20:133-143.

 

16. Cervical Angles in Sleep Apnea Patients: A Retrospective Study. Dobson, GJ.; Blanks, RHI.; Boone, WR.; Mccoy, HG.; JVSR 1999; 3(1): 9-23.

 

17. Obstructive sleep apnea: a principal component analysis. Tangugsorn V, Krogstad O, Espeland L, Lyberg T. Int J Adult Orthodon Orthognath Surg. 1999;14(3):215-28.

 

18. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): a cephalometric analysis of severe and non-severe OSA patients. Part II: A predictive discriminant function analysis. Tangugsorn V, Krogstad O, Espeland L, Lyberg T. Int J Adult Orthodon Orthognath Surg. 2000 Fall;15(3):179-91.

 

19. Forward head posture and neck mobility in chronic tension-type headache: a blinded, controlled study Fernández C, et al. Cephalalgia 2006;26(3):314-319.

 

20. Determining a clinical normal value for cervical lordosis. McAviney J, Schulz D, Richard Bock R, Harrison DE, Holland B (2005) J Manipulative Physiol Ther 28:187-193.

 

21. Cervical spine geometry correlated to cervical degenerative disease in a symptomatic group. Journal of manipulative physiol therapy 2003 Jul:26(6)341-346

 

22. Spinal kyphosis causes demylination and neuronal loss in the spinal cord: A new model of kyphotic deformity using juvenile japanese small game fowls. Spine Journal 30(21):2388-2392 Nov 1 2005

 

23. Determining the relationship between cervical lordosis and neck complaints. Jeb McAviney, Dan Schulz, Richard Bock, Deed E. Harrison, Burt Holland Journal of manipulative physiol therapy March 2005 (Vol. 28, Issue 3, Pages 187-193)

 

24. Evaluation of axial and flexural stresses in the vertebral body cortex and trabecular bone in lordosis and two sagittal cervical translation configurations with an elliptical shell model Deed E. Harrison, E.William Jones, Tadeusz J. Janik, Donald D. Harrison Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics July 2002 (Vol. 25, Issue 6, Pages 391-401

 

25. Cobb Method or Harrison Posterior Tangent Method: Which to Choose for Lateral Cervical Radiographic Analysis Spine Journal 15 August 2000 – Volume 25 – Issue 16 – pp 2072-2078 Harrison, Deed E. DC; Harrison, Donald D. PhD, DC, MSE; Cailliet, Rene MD; Troyanovich, Stephan J. DC; Janik, Tadeusz J. PhD,÷; Holland, Burt PhD

 

26. Increased Sagittal Plane Segmental Motion in the Lower Cervical Spine in Women With Chronic Whiplash-Associated Disorders, Grades I-II: A Case-Control Study Using a New Measurement Protocol Kristjansson, Eythor PT, BSc; Leivseth, Gunnar MD, PhD, Prof; Brinckmann, Paul Prof Dr rer nat; Frobin, Wolfgang Dr rer nat Spine Journal 1 October 2003 – Volume 28 – Issue 19 – pp 2215-2221

27. Correction of Cervical Kyphosis Using Pedicle Screw Fixation Systems Abumi, Kuniyoshi MD; Shono, Yasuhiro MD; Taneichi, Hiroshi MD; Ito, Manabu MD; Kaneda, Kiyoshi MD Spine Journal 15 November 1999 – Volume 24 – Issue 22 – p 2389

28. Computerized tomographical study of dorsal neck muscles for insertion of EMG wire electrodes Mayoux-Benhamou MA. Electromyo Clin Neurophys 1993;33:161-6. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 101-107

 

29. Is the Sagittal configuration of the cervical spine changed in women with chronic whiplash syndrome? A comparative computer-assisted radiographic assessment. Kristjansson E, et al. JMPT 2002;25:550-555.

 

30. Total head excursion and resting head posture: Normal and patient comparisons. Hanten WP, Olson SL, Russell JL, Lucio RM, Campbell AH. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000;81:62-66.

 

31. Myofascial trigger points, neck mobility and forward head posture in unilateral migraine. Fernández-de-Las-Peñas C, Cuadrado ML, Pareja JA. Cephalalgia. 2006 Sep;26(9):1061-70.

 

32. Trigger points in the suboccipital muscles and forward head posture in tension-type headache. Fernández-de-las-Peñas C, Alonso-Blanco C, Cuadrado ML, Gerwin RD, Pareja JA. Headache 2006;46(3):454-460.

 

33. Myofascial trigger points and their relationship to headache clinical parameters in chronic tension-type headache. Fernández-de-Las-Peñas C, Alonso-Blanco C, Cuadrado ML, Gerwin RD, Pareja JA. Headache. 2006 Sep;46(8):1264-72.

 

34. Myofascial trigger points, neck mobility, and forward head posture in episodic tension-type headache. Fernández-de-Las-Peñas C, Cuadrado ML, Pareja JA. Headache 2007;47(5):662-672.

 

35. Relationship of forward head posture and cervical backward bending to neck pain. Haughie LJ, Fiebert IM, Roach KE. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1995(3):91-97.

 

36. Cervicogenic dysfunction in muscle contraction headache and migraine: A descriptive study. Vernon H, et al. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1992;15:418-29.

 

37. The association between cervical spine curvature and neck pain. Grob D, Frauenfelder H, Mannion AF (2006) Eur Spine J Nov 18; [Epub ahead of print].

 

38. Apophysial joint degeneration, disc degeneration, and sagittal curve of the cervical spine. Cote P, Cassidy JD, Yong-Hing K, Sibley J, Loewy Spine Journal. 1997;22:859-64.

 

39. Comparison of axial flexural stresses in lordosis and three dimensional buckled configurations of the cervical spine Deed Harrison, Don Harrison, Tadeusz Janik. E. William Jones, Rene Calliet, Martin Normand Clinical Biomechanics 16 (2001) 276-284

 

40. Cervical curvature in acute whiplash injuries: a prospective comparative study with asymptomatic subjects. Injury 1998;29 p775-8

 

41. Kinamatics of cervical spine injury. A functional radiological hypothesis. Eur Spine Journal. 1995;4p126-32

 

42. The vertical stability of the cervical spine. Pal GP, Sherk HH. Spine.1998;13:p447-8

 

43. Prediction of load sharing amoung spinal components of a C5-C6 motion segment using the finite element approach. Spine 1998;23:684-91

 

44. Anatomic basis for the study of constraints to which the cervical spine is subject in the sagittal plane. A study of the centre of gravity of the head. Surg Radiol Anat 1986;8:169-73

 

45. Whiplash produces an S shaped curvature of the neck with hyperextension of the lower levels. Spine 1997;22:2489-94

 

46. The effects of mechanical forces on bones and joints. Experimental study on the rat

tail. Pazzaglia UE, Andrini L, Di Nucci A. J Bone Joint Surg (Am) 1997;79- A:1024-30.

 

47. Kinematics of cervical spine injury: a functional radiological hypothesis. Penning L. Eur Spine J 1995;130:317-26.

 

48. Kinematics of the cervical spine canal: Changes with sagittal plane loads. Chen IH, Vasavada A, Panjabi MM. J Spinal Disord. 1994;7:93-101.

 

49. A Review of Biomechanics of the Central Nervous System—Part II: Spinal Cord Strains from Postural Loads. JMPT Volume 22 June 1999 Deed E. Harrison, DC, Rene Cailliet, MD, Donald D. Harrison, PhD, DC, Stephan J. Troyanovich, DC, and Sanghak O. Harrison, DC

 

50. Effect of Neck Exercise on Sitting Posture in Patients With Chronic Neck Pain.

J PHYS THER Vol. 87, No. 4, April 2007, pp. 408-417Deborah Falla, Gwendolen Jull, Trevor Russell, Bill Vicenzino and Paul Hodges

 

51. Line drawing analyses of static cervical X ray used in chiropractic.

Owens EF Jr. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1992 Sep;15(7):442-9. Review.

 

52. Head Posture and Neck Pain of Chronic Nontraumatic Origin: A Comparison Between Patients and Pain-Free Persons
Anabela G. Silva, T. David Punt, Paul Sharples, João P. Vilas-Boas, Mark I. Johnson
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
April 2009 (Vol. 90, Issue 4, Pages 669-674)

 

53. Cervicogenic dysfunction in muscle contraction headache and migraine: a descriptive study [see comments]. Vernon H, Steiman I, Hagino C. J Manipulative.Physiol Ther.1992;15:418-29.

 

54. Biomechanical analysis of buckling alignment of the cervical spine: predictive value for sub-axial subluxation after occipito-cervical fusion. Matsunaga S, Sakou T, Sunahara N, Oonoshi T, Maeda S, Nakanisi K. Spine 1997; 22:765-71.

 

55. Cervical spine geometry correlated to cervical degenerative disease in a symptomatic group. Wiegand R, Kettner NW, Brahee D, Marquina N. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2003; 26:341-6.

 

 

C) Hyper and hypo-kyphosis of thoracic spine

 

1. A study of complaints and their relation to vertebral destruction in patients with osteoporosis. Leidig G, Minne HW, Sauer P, Wuster C, Wuster J, Lojen M, Raue F, Ziegler R Bone Miner 1990;8:217-229.

 

2. Thoracic kyphosis, rib mobility and lung volumes in normal women and women with osteoporosis. Culham, et al. Spine Journal 1994;11:1250-55.

 

3. Spinal curvatures and quality of life in women with vertebral fractures secondary to osteoporosis. Cortet B, Houvenagel E, Puisieux F, Roches E, Garnier P, Delcambre B Spine Journal 1999;18:1921-1925.

 

4. Evaluation of spinal curvatures after a recent osteoporotic vertebral fracture. Joint Bone Spine. Cortet B, Roches E, Logier R, Houvenagel E, Gaydier-Souquieres G, Puisieux F, Delcambre B. 2002 Mar;69(2):201-8.

 

 

5. Relationship Between Vertebral Deformities And Allergic Diseases. Takeda Y, Arai S. The Internet Journal of Orthopedic Surgery 2004;2(1):

 

6. Association of thoracic kyphosis with subjective poor health, functional activity and blood pressure in the community-dwelling elderly. Nishiwaki Y, Kikuch Y, Araya K, et al. Environ Health Prev Med 2007; 12(6):246-250.

 

7. Hyperkyphotic Posture Predicts Mortality in Older Community-Dwelling Men and Women: A prospective Study. Deborah Kado,MD, MS,Mei-Hua Huang, DrPH,Arun S. Karlamangla, MD, PhD, Elizabeth Barrett-Connor, MD,w and Gail A. Greendale, MD Journal of American Geriatrics Society. Volume 52 Issue 10 Oct 2004 p1662

 

8. Trunk deformity is associated with a reduction in outdoor activities of daily living and life satisfaction in community-dwelling older people. Takahashi T, Ishida K., et al. Osteoporosis Int. 2005;16: 273-279.

 

9. Development of spinal posture in a cohort of children age 11 to 22 years. Eur Spine J 2005 Oct:14(8):738-42

 

10. Hyperkyphotic posture and risk of future osteoporotic fractures: The Ranch Bernado Study. J Bone Miner Res. 2006 Mar:21(3):419-23

 

11. Impact of postural deformities and spinal mobility on quality of life in post-menopausal osteoporosis. Osteoporosis Int 2003 Dec:14(12):1007-12

 

12. Thoracic and Thoracolumbar Kyphosis in Adults Macagno, Angel E. MD; O’Brien, Michael F. MD Spine Journal September 2006 – Volume 31 – Issue 19S – pp S161-S170

 

13. Differences in Thoracic Kyphosis and in Back Muscle Strength in Women With Bone Loss due to Osteoporosis Mika, Anna PhD; Unnithan, Viswanath B. PhD; Mika, Piotr PhD Spine Journal 15 January 2005 – Volume 30 – Issue 2 – pp 241-246

 

14. Lumbar Degenerative Kyphosis: Radiologic Analysis and Classifications Jang, Jee-Soo MD, PhD; Lee, Sang-Ho MD, PhD; Min, Jun-Hong MD, PhD; Han, Kyoung-Mi RN Spine Journal 15 November 2007 – Volume 32 – Issue 24 – pp 2694-2699

15. The Natural History of Congenital Scoliosis and Kyphosis Marks, David S. FRCS, FRCS (Orth); Qaimkhani, Saeed A. FRCS (Orth) Spine Journal 1 August 2009 – Volume 34 – Issue 17 – pp 1751-1755

16. Measurement of Spinal Kyphosis: Implications for the Management of Scheuermann’s Kyphosis Spine Journal Stotts, Alan K. MD; Smith, John T. MD; Santora, Steven D. MD; Roach, James W. MD; D’Astous, Jacques L. MD 1 October 2002 – Volume 27 – Issue 19 – pp 2143-2146

 

17. Prediction of Osteoporotic Spinal Deformity Tony S. Keller, PhD, Deed E. Harrison, DC, Christopher J. Colloca, DC, Donald D. Harrison, DC, PhD and Tadeusz J. Janik, PhD Spine Journal 2003 Volume 28, Number 5, pp 455–462

 

18. How do anterior/posterior translations of the thoracic cage effect the sagital lumbar spine, pelvic tilt and thoracic kyphosis? European Spine Journal 2002: 11(3): 287-293 Deed Harrison, Rene Cailliett, Don Harrison

 

19. Lumbar coupling during lateral translations of the thoracic cage relative to a fixed pelvis. Clinical biomechanics 1999 14(10):704-709 Deed Harrison, Rene Cailliett, Don Harrison

 

20. Thoracic Osteoporotic Fracture Without Upper Back Pain Huntoon, Elizabeth MD; Sinaki, Mehrsheed MD, MS American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation: September 2004 – Volume 83 – Issue 9 – p 729

 

21. Influence of Posture on the Range of Axial Rotation and Coupled Lateral Flexion of the Thoracic Spine. Stephen J. Edmondston, PhD, Mathew Aggerholm, Suzanne Elfving, Neil Flores, Christopher Ng, Richard Smith, BPT, Kevin Netto, PhD JMPT Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 193-199 (March 2007)

 

22. Thoracic kyphosis, rib mobility and lung volumes in normal women and women with osteoporosis. Culham, et al. Spine 1994;11:1250-55.

 

23. Scheuermann kyphosis. Wenger DR, Frick SL 1999 Spine Journal 24:2630-2639

 

24. Scoliosis sagittal alignment. Hilibrand AS et al. J Ped Orthop 1995;p627-32

 

25. Long-term morbidity and mortality after a clinically diagnosed vertebral fracture in the elderly-a 12 and 22 year follow up. Calcif Tissue Int 2005;76(4)p235-42

 

26. Thoracic Kyphosis Affects Spinal Loads and Trunk Muscle Force. J PHYS THER

Vol. 87, No. 5, May 2007, pp. 595-607Andrew M Briggs, Jaap H van Dieën, Tim V Wrigley, Alison M Greig, Bev Phillips, Sing Kai Lo and Kim L Bennell

27. Balance disorder and increased risk of falls in osteoporosis and kyphosis: significance of kyphotic posture and muscle strength Sinaki, M., Brey, R.H. (et al.)

Osteoporosis International, Springer London, 12.11.2004, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 1004-1010

28. Postural degenerative kyphosis. Griegel-Morris et al. Phys Ther 1992;72:425-431

29. Hyperkyphotic Posture and Risk of Injurious Falls in Older Persons: The Rancho Bernardo Study Deborah M. Kado, Mei-Hua Huang, Claude B. Nguyen, Elizabeth Barrett-Connor, and Gail A. Greendale J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci., Jun 2007; 62: 652 – 657

 

30. Thoracic kyphosis and the prevelance of advanced uterine collapse. Obstst Gynecol 1996;87:605-609

 

31. The Straight Back Syndrome M. K. DAVIES, P. MACKINTOSH, R. M. CAYTON, A. J. F. PAGE, M. F. SHIU and W. A. LITTLER J Med 1980; 49: 443-460

32. Tracheal Compression Caused by Straight Back Syndrome, Chest Wall Deformity, and Anterior Spinal Displacement: Techniques for Relief H. C. Grillo, C. D. Wright, P. G. Dartevelle, J. C. Wain, and S. Murakami Ann. Thorac. Surg., December 1, 2005; 80(6): 2057 – 2062.

33. Is Mitral Valve Prolapse Due to Cardiac Entrapment in the Chest Cavity?: A CT View . P. Raggi, T. Q. Callister, N. J. Lippolis, and D. J. Russo Chest, March 1, 2000; 117(3): 636 – 642.

 

34. Can the Thoracic Kyphosis Be Modeled With a Simple Geometric Shape?: The Results of Circular and Elliptical Modeling in 80 Asymptomatic Patients. Harrison DE, Janik TJ, Harrison DD et al. J Spinal Disord.Tech. 2002;15:213-20.

 

35. The effect of anterior osteophytes and flexural position on thoracic trabecular strain. Toh E, Yerby SA, Bay BK et al. Spine 2001;26:22-6.

 

D) Hyper or hypo-lordosis of lumbar spine

1. Correlative analysis of lateral vertebral radiographic variables and medical outcomes study short-form health survey: a comparative study in asymptomatic volunteers versus patients with low back pain. Korovessis P Dimas A Iliopoulos P Lambiris E J Spinal Disord Tech. 2002 Oct;15(5):384-90.

2. An analytical survey of structural aberrations observed in static radiographic examinations among acute low back cases. Reinert OC. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1988 Feb;11(1):24-30.

 

3. Clinical findings as outcome predictors in rehabilitation of patients with sciatica. Nykvist F, et al. International J of Rehabilitation Res 1991;14:131-144.

 

4. Radiographic analysis of lumbar spine for low-back pain in the general population. Inaoka M, et al. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2000;120:380-385.

 

5. Knee-spine syndrome: correlation between sacral inclination and patellofemoral joint pain. Tsuji T, Matsuyama Y, Goto M, Yimin Y, Sato K, Hasegawa H, Ishiguro N. J Orthop Sci 2002; 7:519-523.

 

6. A comparative roentgenographic analysis of the lumbar spine in male army recruits with and without lower back pain. Steinberg EL, Luger E, Arbel R, Menachem A, Dekel S. Clin Radiol. 2003 Dec; 58(12): 985-9.

 

7. Lumbar lordosis in acute and chronic low back pain patients. Evcik D, Yucel A. Rheumatol Int 2003; 23(4):163-5. Epub 2003 Jan 18.

 

8. Elliptical modeling and sagittal lumbar radiographic alignment variables in normal vs. chronic low back pain subjects: does pelvic morphology explain group lordotic differences? Harrison DE, Harrison DD, Janik TJ, Cailliet R, Holland B. Proceedings of the 34th annual meeting of the International Society for the Study of the Lumbar Spine (ISSLS) 2007; June 10-14, Hong Kong, China:p149.

 

9. Pelvic morphology affects the sagittal plane alignment of the lumbo-pelvic spine normal subjects and low back pain patients. Harrison DE, Keller TS, Harrison DD, Janik TJ, Colloca CJ. Proceedings of the 34th annual meeting of the International Society for the Study of the Lumbar Spine (ISSLS) 2007; June 10-14, Hong Kong, China:p148.

 

10. Sagittal balance of the pelvis-spine complex and lumbar degenerative diseases. A comparative study about 85 cases. Barrey C, Jund J, Noseda O, Roussouly P. Eur Spine J 2007; 16:1459–1467.

 

11. Flattening of sagittal curvature as a predictor of vertebral fracture. Kobayashi T. Osteoporos Int 2008;19:65–69.

 

12. Personal risk factors for first time low back pain. Adams MA, et al. Spine 1999; 24:2497-2505.

 

13. Epidemiology of low back pain in the elderly: correlation with lumbar lordosis. Tsuji T, Matsuyama Y, Sato Y, Hasegawa Y, Yimin Y, Iwata H. J Orthop Sci 2001; 6:307-311.

 

14. “Spondylolisthesis: its cause and effect”. Newman PH (1955). Ann Coll Surg Engl 16: 305.

 

15. Lumbar hyperlordosis of neuromuscular origin: pathophysiology and surgical strategy for correction Raphaël Vialle, Nejib Khouri, Christophe Glorion, Joël Lechevallier, and Christian Morin Int Orthop. 2007 August; 31(4): 513–523.

 

16. Elliptical modeling of the sagittal lumbar lordosis and segmental rotation angles as a method to discriminate between normal and low back pain subjects. Harrison DD, Cailliet R, Janik TJ, et al. J Spinal Disorders. 1998;11:430–439.

 

17. The Cellular Pathobiology of the Degenerate Intervertebral Disc and Discogenic Back Pain Rheumatology , 2009-01-01

 

18. Sustained loading generates stress concentrations in lumbar intervertebral

discs. Adams MA, McMillan DW, Green TP, Dolan P. Spine 1996;21:434-8.

 

19. Anterior thoracic posture increases thoracolumbar disc loading. Deed E. Harrison Christopher J. Colloca Donald D. Harrison Tadeusz J. Janik Jason W. Haas Tony S. Keller. Eur Spine J (2005) 14 : 234–242

 

20. Intervertebral Disc Degeneration Reduces Vertebral Motion Responses Christopher J. Colloca, DC,* Tony S. Keller, PhD,† Robert J. Moore, PhD Robert Gunzburg, MD, PhD,§ and Deed E. Harrison, DC Spine journal 2002 Volume 32, Number 19, pp E544-50

 

21. Comparative roentgenographic study of the asymptomatic and symptomatic lumbar spine. Torgerson WR, Dotter WE. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1976;58:850-3.

 

22. Low-back pain in relation to lumbar disc degeneration. Luoma K, Riihimaki H, Luukkonen R, Raininko R, Viikari-Juntura E, Lamminen Spine Journal 2000;25:487-92

 

23. A cross-sectional study correlating lumbar spine degeneration with disability and pain. Peterson CK, Bolton JE, Wood AR. Spine Journal 2000;25:218-23.

24. Lumbar posture–should it, and can it, be modified? A study of passive tissue stiffness and lumbar position during activities of daily living. Phys Ther 2003 Oct;83(10):907-17.Scannell JP McGill SM

25. The significance of correlation of radiographic variables and MOS short-form health survey for clinical decision in symptomatic low back pain patients. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2002;91:325-31.Korovessis P Dimas A Lambiris E

25. Reciprocal angulation of vertebral bodies in the sagittal plane in an asymptomatic Greek population. Spine Journal (Phila Pa 1976). 1998 Mar 15;23(6):700-4; discussion 704-5. Korovessis PG Stamatakis MV Baikousis AG

26. Lumbopelvic lordosis and pelvic balance on repeated standing lateral radiographs of adult volunteers and untreated patients with constant low back pain. Jackson RP, Kanemura T, Kawakami N, Hales C. Spine 2000; 25: 575-586.

 

27. Lumbar lordosis in osteoporosis and in osteoarthritis Michael Papadakis, Georgios Papadokostakis, Konstantinos Stergiopoulos, Nikos Kampanis Æ Pavlos Katonis Eur Spine J (2009) 18:608–613

 

28. Effectiveness of an Extension-Oriented Treatment Approach in a Subgroup of Subjects With Low Back Pain: A Randomized Clinical Trial. J PHYS THER

Vol. 87, No. 12, December 2007, pp. 1608-1618David A Browder, John D Childs, Joshua A Cleland and Julie M Fritz

29. Segmental Instability of the Lumbar Spine Julie M Fritz, Richard E Erhard and Brian F Hagen PHYS THER Vol. 78, No. 8, August 1998, pp. 889-896

30. Can the sagittal lumbar curvature be closely approximated by an ellipse? Janik TJ, Harrison DD, Cailliet R et al. J.Orthop.Res. 1998;16:766-70.

31. Reliability of Lumbar Spine Radiograph Reading by Chiropractors Assendelft, Willem J. J. MD, PhD; Bouter, Lex M. PhD; Knipschild, Paul G. MD, PhD; Wilmink, Jan T. MD, PhD Spine JournalJune 1997 – Volume 22 – Issue 11 – pp 1235-1241

32. Low back pain and the lumbar intervertebral disk: Clinical considerations for the doctor of chiropractic
Stephan J. Troyanovich, Donald D. Harrison, Deed E. Harrison
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
February 1999 (Vol. 22, Issue 2, Pages 96-104)

 

33. The effect of mechanical stress on hypertrophy of the lumbar ligamentum flavum. Fukuyama S, Nakamura I, Ikeda T, Takagi K. J Spinal Disord 1995; 8:126-30.

 

 

 

E) Aberrant global spinal sagittal balance and alignment.

1. An analysis of sagittal spinal alignment in 100 asymptomatic middle and older aged volunteers. Gelb DE Lenke LG Bridwell KH Blanke K McEnery KW Spine Journal (Phila Pa 1976). 1995 Jun 15;20(12):1351-8.

2. Measurements of lumbopelvic lordosis using the pelvic radius technique as it correlates with sagittal spinal balance and sacral translation. Spine Journal 2002 Nov-Dec;2(6):421-9. Gardocki RJ Watkins RG Williams LA

3. Review of scientific literature relevant to structural rehabilitation of the spine and posture: Rationale for treatment beyond resolution of symptoms. Troyanovich SJ, Harrison DE, Harrison DD J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1998;21(4)252-256

 

4. A normal spine position: Accepting the evidence. Harrison DE, Harrison DD. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2000:23 p623-644

 

5. Evidence based protocols for structural rehabilitation of the spine and posture: Review of clinical biomechanics of posture Oakly PA, Harrison DD, Harrison DE J. Canadian Chiro assoc 2005;49(4)p268-294

 

6. Variability in Cobb angle measurements using reformatted computerized tomography scans. Adam CJ, Izatt MT, Harvey JR, Askin GN, Spine Journal 2005 Jul15;30(14)p1664-9

 

7. A variability study of computerized sagital spinopelvic radiographic measurements of trunk balance. Berthonnaud E, Labelle H, Roussouly P, Grimard G, Vaz G, Dimnet J. J Spinal Disorders Tech 2005 Feb;18(1)66-71

 

8. Relationship Between Vertebral Deformities And Allergic Diseases. Takeda Y, Arai S. The Internet Journal of Orthopedic Surgery 2004;2(1):

 

9. Lumbopelvic lordosis and pelvic balance on repeated standing lateral radiographs of adult volunteers and untreated patients with constant low back pain. Jackson RP, Kanemura T, Kawakami N, Hales C. Spine 2000; 25: 575-586.

 

10. Impact of postural deformities and spinal mobility on quality of life in postmenopausal osteoporosis Miyakoshi N. Osteop Int. 2003;14 1007-1012.

 

11. Impact of positive sagittal balance in adult spinal deformity. Glassman SD, Bridwell K, Dimar JR, Horton W, Berven S, Schwab F. The Spine 2005;30:2024-2029.

 

12. Pelvic morphology affects the sagittal plane alignment of the lumbo-pelvic spine normal subjects and low back pain patients. Harrison DE, Keller TS, Harrison DD, Janik TJ, Colloca CJ. Proceedings of the 34th annual meeting of the International Society for the Study of the Lumbar Spine (ISSLS) 2007; June 10-14, Hong Kong, China:p148.

 

13. Sagittal balance of the pelvis-spine complex and lumbar degenerative diseases. A comparative study about 85 cases. Barrey C, Jund J, Noseda O, Roussouly P. Eur Spine J 2007; 16:1459–1467.

 

14. Clinical measurement of head and shoulder posture variables. Harrison AL, Barry-Greb T, Wojtowicz G. JOSPT 1996;23:353-361.

 

15. Body posture and hand strength of patients with temporomandibular disorder. Shiau YY, Chai HM. J Craniomand Pract 1990;8:244-251.

 

16. Cervical headache: an investigation of natural head posture and upper cervical flexor muscle performance. Watson DH, Trott PH. Cehpalalgia 1993;13:272-284.

 

17. Relationship of forward head posture and cervical backward bending to neck pain. Haughie LJ, Fiebert IM, Roach KE. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1995(3):91-97.

 

18. Posture in patients with shoulder overuse injuries and healthy individuals. Greenfield B, Catlin PA, Coats PW, Green E, McDonald JJ, North C. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1995 May;21(5):287-95.

 

19. The relationship between forward head posture and temporomandibular disorders. Lee WY, Okeson JP, Lindroth J. J Orofac Pain. 1995 Spring;9(2):161-7.

 

20. Musculoskeletal abnormalities in chronic headache: A controlled comparison of headache diagnostic groups. Marcus DA, et al. Headache 1999;39:21-27.

 

23. Surface contour whole spine and body to Gait abnormalities. Hirose D, et al. Clin Biom 2004;19:57-63.

 

24. Trunk deformity is associated with a reduction in outdoor activities of daily living and life satisfaction in community-dwelling older people. Takahashi T, Ishida K., et al. Osteoporosis Int. 2005;16: 273-279.

 

25. Forward head posture and neck mobility in chronic tension-type headache: a blinded, controlled study Fernández C, et al. Cephalalgia 2006;26(3):314-319.

 

26. Influence of spine morphology in intervertebral disc loads and stresses in asymptomatic adults: Implications for the ideal spine. Spine Journal 2005 May-June:5(3)297-309.

 

27. Performance of the craniocervical flexion test, forward head posture, and headache clinical parameters in patients with chronic tension-type headache: a pilot study. Fernandez-de-las-Peñas C, Pérez-de-Heredia M, Molero-Sánchez A, Miangolarra-Page JC J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2007 Feb;37(2):33-9.

 

28. The relationship between posture and curvature of the cervical spine. Visscher CM, de Boer W, Naeije M. Journal of manipulative physiol therapy 1998 Jul-Aug:21(6)388-91

 

29. Effects of abnormal posture on abnormal ligament elongations in a computational model subjected to whiplash loading. Stemper BD, Yoganandan N, Pintar FA. J Biomechanics 2005 jun38(6):1313-23

 

30. Resting position variable at the shoulder: Evidence to support a posture impairment association. Phys Ther 2006 Apri:86(4):549-57

 

31. The effect of scapular protraction on isometric shoulder rotation strength in normal subjects: J Shoulder Elbow surgery 2006 May-Jun:15(3) 339-43

 

32. The effects of upright and slumped posture on the recalls of positive and negative thoughts. Appl Psychophysilogy biofeedback 2004 Sept:29(3)189-95

 

33. The representation of self-reported effect in body posture and body posture simulation; Coll Antropol. 2004 28 suppl 2:159-73

 

34. Clinical characteristics of flexed posture in elderly women. J Am Geritric Soc. 2003 Oct: 51(10) 1419-26

 

35. Hyperkyphotic Posture Predicts Mortality in Older Community-Dwelling Men and Women: A prospective Study. Deborah Kado,MD, MS,Mei-Hua Huang, DrPH,Arun S. Karlamangla, MD, PhD, Elizabeth Barrett-Connor, MD,w and Gail A. Greendale, MD Journal of American Geriatrics Society. Volume 52 Issue 10 Oct 2004 p1662

 

36. The impact of positive sagital balance in adult spinal deformity. Spine Volume 30(18). Sept 15 2005 pp2024-2029

 

37. Understanding work-related UED’s: clinical findings in 485 computer users, musicians, and others. Pascarelli EF. J Occup Rehabil 2001;11(1):1-21.

 

38. Clinical Characteristics of Flexed Posture in Elderly Women. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society Volume 51, October 2003, Pages: 1419-1426 Lara Balzini, Luca Vannucchi, Francesco Benvenuti, Maurizio Benucci, Mileno Monni, Aurelio Cappozzo, Steven J. Stanhope

 

39. A review of biomechanics of the central nervous system—part III: Spinal cord stresses from postural loads and their neurologic effects
Deed E. Harrison, Rene Cailliet, Donald D. Harrison, Stephan J. Troyanovich, Sanghak O. Harrison
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
July 1999 (Vol. 22, Issue 6, Pages 399-410)

 

40. How Do Anterior/Posterior Translations of the Thoracic Cage Affect the Sagittal Lumbar Spine, Pelvic Tilt, and Thoracic Kyphosis? Harrison DE, Cailliet R, Harrison DD, Janik TJ. Eur Spine J 2002; 11(3): 287-293.

 

41. White Paper on Sagittal Plane Deformities and Analysis. Knight RQ, Jackson RP, Killian JT, Stanley EA, Lowe T, Winter RB. 2003 Scoliosis Research Society.

 

42. Reciprocal angulation of vertebral bodies in a sagittal plane: approach to references for the evaluation of kyphosis and lordosis. Stagnara, P, DE mauroy JC, Dran G, Gonon GP, Costanzo G, Dimnet J, Pasquet A. Spine 1982; 7:335-342.

 

43. Morphological and Biomechanical Modeling of the Thoracoc-lumbar Spine: Implications for the Ideal Spine. Keller Ts, Colloca CJ, Harrison DE, Harrison DD, Janik TJ. Spine Journal 2005; 5:297-305.

 

44. The effect of variation in arm position on sagittal spinal alignment. Vedantam R, Lenke LG, Bridwell KH, Linville DL, Blanke K. Spine. 2000 Sep 1;25(17):2204-9.

 

45. A need for the lateral full spine x-ray as a diagnostic complement to the A-P full spine view in chiropractic postural study. Thompson G. J Can Chiropr Assoc 2001;45(1):9,10.

 

46. [Use of a dynamic balance for standardized imaging technique in entire roentgen images of the spine of children in the upright position]. Kohlmaier W, Lercher K, Tschauner C. Radiologe. 1995 Jan;35(1):60-6.

 

47. Congruent spinopelvic alignment on standing lateral radiographs of adult volunteers. Jackson RP, Hales C. Spine. 2000 Nov 1;25(21):2808-15.

 

48. Radiographic and biomechanical analysis of patients with low back pain: a prospective clinical trial. Harrison DE, Keller TS, Betz JW, Colloca CJ, Haas JW, Harrison DD, Janik TJ. Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Meeting of the International Society for the Study of the Lumbar Spine, New York, NY, May 10-14, 2005:162.

 

49. Prediction of Osteoporotic Spinal Deformity. Keller TS, Colloca CJ, Harrison DE, Harrison DD, Janik TJ. Spine 2003; 28(5): 455-462.

 

50. Radiographic analysis of the sagittal alignment and balance of the spine in asymptomatic subjects. Vialle R, Levassor N, Rillardon L, Templier A, Skalli W, Guigui P J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005 Feb;87(2):260-7.

 

51. Normal posture of spine determined by mathematical and statistical methods. Beck A, Killus J. Aerospace Medicine 1973;Nov.:1277-1281.

 

52. The sagittal profile of the cervical and Lumbosacral spine in Scheuermann thoracic kyphosis. Loder RT. J Spinal Disorders 2001;14:226-231.

 

53. Anterior thoracic posture increases thoracolumbar disc loading. Harrison DE, Colloca CJ, Keller TS, Harrison DD, Janik TJ. Eur Spine J 2005:14:234-242.

 

54. Sagittal alignment in lumbosacral fusion: relations between radiological parameters

and pain. Lazennec J-Y, Ramare S, Arafati N, Laudet CG, Gorin M, Roger B, Hansen S, Saillant G, MaursL, Trabelsi R. Eur Spine J 2000;9:47-55.

 

55. Dynamic sagittal imbalance of the spine in degenerative flat back. Significance of pelvic tilt in surgical treatment. Lee CS, Lee CK, Kim YT, Hong YM, Yoo JH. Spine 2001;26:2029-2035.

 

56. A longitudinal study of congruent sagittal spinal alignment in an adult cohort. Kobayashi T, Atsuta Y, Matsuno T, Takeda N. Spine 2004; 29:671-676.

 

57. Plain film radiography in chiropractic. In, Plaugher G, editor: Textbook of Clinical

Chiropractic. A Specific Biomechanical Approach. . Rowe SH. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, 1993; pages:

 

58. A look at Chiropractic Spinal Correction. Cumberland, WI: Toftness Chiropractic,

Inc., 1977. Toftness IN.

 

59. Organ Dosimetry in Spinal Radiography: A Comparison of 3-Region

Sectional and Full-Spine Techniques. Cracknell DM, Bull PW. Chiropr J Aust 2006; 36:33-9.

 

60. Textbook for clinical chiropractic: a specific biomechanical approach. Plaugher G. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1993.

 

61. Influence of spine morphology in intervertebral disc loads and stresses in asymptomatic adults: Implications for the ideal spine. Spine Journal 2005 May-June:5(3)297-309.

 

62. Sustained loading generates stress concentrations in lumbar intervertebral

discs. Adams MA, McMillan DW, Green TP, Dolan P. Spine 1996;21:434-8.

 

63. A Review of Biomechanics of the Central Nervous System—Part II: Spinal Cord Strains from Postural Loads. JMPT Volume 22 June 1999 Deed E. Harrison, DC, Rene Cailliet, MD, Donald D. Harrison, PhD, DC, Stephan J. Troyanovich, DC, and Sanghak O. Harrison, DC

 

64. The role of spinal flexion and extension in changing nerve root compression in disc herniations. Schnebel BE,Watkins RG, Dillin W. Spine 1989;14:835-7.

 

65. Active trunk extensor contributions to dynamic posterior/anterior lumbar spinal stiffness Christopher J. Colloca, DC, and Tony S. Keller, PhD J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2004;27:229-237)

 

66. Lumbar disc degeneration and sagittal flexibility. Burton AK, Battie MC, Gibbons L, Videman T, Tillotson KM. J Spinal Disord 1996;9:418-24.

 

67. Full-spine radiography: a review. Taylor JA. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1993 Sep;16(7):460-74. Review.

 

68. Attributes and qualities of human posture and their relationship to dysfunction or musculoskeletal pain. Raine S, Twomey L. Crit Rev Phys Rehabil Med 1994;6:409-37.

 

 

F) Aberrant spinal coronal balance and alignment

 

1. Prevalence and risk factors for asymmetric posture in preschool children aged 6-7 years. Juskeliene V, Magnus P, Bakketeig LS, Dailidiene N, Jurkuvenas V. Int J Epidemiol. 1996 Oct;25(5):1053-9.

 

2. Effects of pelvic skeletal asymmetry on trunk movement :three dimensional analysis of healthy individuals vs patients with mechanical low back pain. Spine 2006 Feb1:31(3)E71-9

 

3. Assessing Mechanical Integrity of the Spine Using Radiographic Analysis. Part 2: Case Studies Involving Structural Asymmetry of the Pelvis. Dulhunty J. Chiropr J Aust 2003; 33(2):64-71. 9571

 

4. Lumbar Coupling During Lateral Translations of the Thoracic Cage Relative to a Fixed Pelvis. Harrison DE, Cailliet R, Harrison DD, Janik TJ, Troyanovich SJ, Coleman RR. Clin Biomech 1999:14(10):704-709.

 

5. A roentgenological evaluation of the relationship between segmental motion and malalignment in lateral bending. Haas M, Peterson D. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1992

 

6. Chiropractic Biophysics digitized radiographic mensuration analysis of the anteroposterior lumbopelvic view: a reliability study. Troyanovich SJ, Harrison SO, Harrison DD, et al. J Manip Physiol Ther 1999;22(5): 309-315.

 

7. Prevalence of frontal plane pelvic postural asymmetry-part 1. Juhl JH, Ippolito Cremin TM, Russell G. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2004 Oct;104(10):411-21.

 

8. Validation of postural radiographs as a way to measure change in pelvic obliquity. Fann AV. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2003 Jan;84(1):75-8.

 

9. Chiropractic biophysics digitized radiographic mensuration analysis of the anterioposterior lumbopelvic view: a reliability study. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1999;22:309-15. Troyanovich SJ, Harrison SO, Harrison DD, Harrison DE, Payne MR, Janik TJ, et al.

 

10. Radiologic interpretation of lumbar vertebral rotation. Gunzburg R, Gunzburg J,Wagner J, Fraser RD. Spine 1991;16:660-4.

 

G) Leg length disparity

1. Is Leg Length Discrepancy Associated With the Side of Radiating Pain in Patients With a Lumbar Herniated Disc? ten Brinke, Albert PT; van der Aa, Hans E. MD, PhD; van der Palen, Job PhD; Oosterveld, Frits PT, PhD Spine Journal: April 1999 – Volume 24 – Issue 7 – pp 684-686

2. Clinical symptoms and biomechanics of lumbar spine and hip joint in leg length inequality. Friberg O Spine Journal 1983:Sep;8(6)p643-641

 

3. The Effect of Leg Length Discrepancy on Spinal Motion During Gait: Three-Dimensional Analysis in Healthy Volunteers Kakushima, Mototaka MD; Miyamoto, Kei MD, PhD; Shimizu, Katsuji MD, DMsc Spine Journal 1 November 2003 – Volume 28 – Issue 21 – pp 2472-2476

4. Lumbar Spine Structural Changes Associated With Leg Length Inequality GILES, L G F MSc; TAYLOR, J R MB ChB, PhD Spine Journal April 1982 Volume 7

5. The Relationship between Leg Length Discrepancy and Lumbar Facet Orientation FROH, R MD; YONG-HING, K MB, FRCSC; CASSIDY, J D DC, MSc; HOUSTON, C S MD, FRCPC Spine Journal Volume 13 March 1988

6. Disproportionate Body Growth in Girls with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: A Longitudinal Study UPADHYAY, S. S. BSc DOrth, MS(Orth); DM, L. C. S. HSU, FRCSE, FACS; HO, E. K. W. FRCS, FRACS, J. C. Y. LEONG, FRCS, FRCSE, FRACS; LEE, M. K. Spine Journal Aug 1991 Volume 16

7. Scoliosis associated with limb length inequality. Papaioannou T, Stokes I,Kenwright J. J Bone and joint surgery 1982;64(1)59-62.

 

8. Conservative correction of leg-length discrepancies of 10mm or less for the relief of chronic low back pain (Randomized control trial) Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2005 Nov;86(11):2075-80.

 

9. Limb length inequality: clinical implications for assessment and intervention. Brady RJ, Dean JB, Skinner TM, Gross MT. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2003 May;33(5):221-34.

 

10. Prevalence of frontal plane pelvic postural asymmetry-part 1. Juhl JH, Ippolito Cremin TM, Russell G. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2004 Oct;104(10):411-21.

 

 

11. A standardized technique for lower limb radiography. Practice, applications, and error analysis. Siu D, Cooke TD, Broekhoven LD, Lam M, Fisher B, Saunders G, Challis TW. Invest Radiol. 1991 Jan;26(1):71-7.

 

12. Limb length discrepancies of the lower extremity (the short leg syndrome). Subotnick S J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1981;3:11-16.

 

13. Ruptures of the Achilles tendon: relationship to inequality in length of legs and to patterns in the foot and ankle. Leppilahti J, Korpelainen R, Karpakka J, Kvist M, Orava S. Foot Ankle Int 1998;19(10):683-687.

 

14. Radiographic measurement of bow leg deformity: variability due to method and limb rotation. Strickler SJ, Faustgen JP. J Pediatric Orthop 1994;14:147-151.

 

15. Amorphous silicon, flat-panel, x-ray detector: reliability of digital image fusion regarding angle and distance measurements in long-leg radiography. Hamer OW, Strotzer M, Zorger N, Paetzel C, Lerch K, Feuerbach S, Volk M. Invest Radiol. 2004 May;39(5):271-6.

 

16. Leg length inequality and the side of low back pain, a pilot study. Anderson RG, Hayak R, Foggerty MP. Comsig Rev: Jul 1995(4:2) 33-36.

 

17. Iliotibial band syndrome in cyclists. Anderson RG, Hayak R, Foggerty MP. Am J Sports Med. 1993;21(3):419-424.

 

18. Risk factors for recurrent stress fractures in athletes. . Korpelainen R, Orava S, Karpakka J, Siira P, Julkko A. Am J Sports Med 2001;29(3):304-310.

 

19. Gait asymmetry in patients with limb-length inequality. Kaufman KR, Miller LS, Sutherland DH. J Pediatric Orthopaedics 1996;16:144-150.

 

20. The effect of limb-length discrepancy on gait. Song KM, Halliday SE, Little DG. J Bone Joint Surgery 1997;79-A(11):1690-1698.

 

21. Leg length discrepancy. Gurney B. Gait and Posture 2000;15:195-206.

 

22. Anatomic and functional leg-length inequality: A review and recommendation for clinical decision-making. Part I, anatomical leg-length inequality: prevalence, magnitude, effects and clinical significance. Knutson GA. Chiropractic & Osteopathy 2005;13(11):1-10.

 

23. Leg length inequality in total hip replacement. Hoikka V, Vankka E, Tallroth K, Paavilainen T, Lindholm TS. Ann Chir Gynaecol 1991;80(4):396-401.

 

24. Leg Length Inequality and the Side of Low back Pain: A Pilot Study. Anderson, R.; Hayak, R.; Foggerty, M. Comsig Review 1995; 4(2):33-6.

 

25. Risk factors for stress fractures in track and field athletes. Bennell KL, Malcolm SA, Thomas SA, Reid SJ, Brukner PD, Ebeling PR, Wark JD. Am J Sports Med 1996;24(6):810-818.

 

26. AP Pelvic X-ray Investigation to Determine Heel Lift Intervention based on Anatomical Leg Length Inequality in Chronic Low Back Pain. Defrin R, Ben Benyamin S, Aldubi RD, Pick CG

 

27. Association of leg-length inequality with knee osteoarthritis: a cohort study.

Harvey WF, Yang M, Cooke TD, Segal NA, … Lewis CE, Felson DT

Ann Intern Med: 02 Mar 2010; 152:287-95

 

28. Relationship of limb length inequality with radiographic knee and hip osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, Volume 15, Issue 7, Pages 824-829

Y. Golightly, K. Allen, J. Renner, C. Helmick, A. Salazar, J. Jordan

 

 

Section Two: The role of follow-up radiographic evaluation after recognized periods of conservative physical management for certain radiographic findings and conditions and thereby establishing and documenting the treatment efficacy. (25 studies).

 

1. A retrospective consecutive case analysis of pretreatment and comparative static radiological parameters following chiropractic adjustments. Plaugher G, Cremata EE, Phillips RB. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1990 Nov-Dec;13(9):498-506. Comment in: J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1991 Jun;14(5):334-6.

 

2. Evidence based protocols for structural rehabilitation of the spine and posture: Review of clinical biomechanics of posture Oakly PA, Harrison DD, Harrison DE J. Canadian Chiro assoc 2005;49(4)p268-294

 

3. Review of scientific literature relevant to structural rehabilitation of the spine and posture: Rationale for treatment beyond resolution of symptoms. Troyanovich SJ, Harrison DE, Harrison DD J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1998;21(4)252-256

 

4. Reliability of spinal displacement analysis on plane x rays: A review of commonly accepted facts and fallacies. Harrison DE, Harrison DD, Troyanovich. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1998:21(4)252-256

 

5. Cervical spine geometry correlated to cervical degenerative disease in a symptomatic group. Journal of manipulative physiol therapy 2003 Jull:26(6)341-346

 

6. A normal spine position: Accepting the evidence. Harrison DE, Harrison DD. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2000:23 p623-644

 

7. Upper cervical post x-ray reduction and its relationship to symptomatic

improvement and spinal stability. Owens EF, Eriksen K. CRJ: 1997(4:2):10-17.

 

8. Abnormal Upper Cervical Joint Alignment and the Neurologic Component of the Atlas Subluxation Complex. Knutson GA. CRJ 1997; 4(1).

 

9. Precision radiologic study: an exposition of specific upper cervical analysis. Kale MU. ICA Rev: JUL/AUG 1991(47:4) 41-45.

 

10. Comparison Betweeen Upper Cervical X-Ray Listings and Technique Analyses Utilizing a Computerized Database. Eriksen, K.; Chiropractic Research J 1996; 3(2):13-24.

 

11. Roentgenographic measurement of atlas laterality and rotation: a retrospective pre- and post-manipulation study. Grostic J, Deboer K. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1982;5(2):63-71.

 

12. Clinical efficacy of upper cervical versus full spine chiropractic care on children with autism: a randomized clinical trial. Khorshid KA, Sweat RW, Zemba DA, Zemba BN. J Vertebral Subluxation Res 2006; March 9:1-7.

 

13. Clinical symptoms and biomechanics of lumbar spine and hip joint in leg length inequality. Friberg O. Spine. 1983 Sep;8(6):643-51.

 

14. Low back pain associated with leg length inequality. Giles LGF, Taylor JR. Spine 1981;6:510-521.

 

15. Scoliosis associated with limb-length inequality. Papaioannou T, Stokes I, Kenwright J. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1982;64(1):59-62.

 

16. Persistent low back pain and leg length disparity. Gofton JP. J Rheumatol 1985;12747-750.

 

17. Effectiveness of orthotic shoe inserts in the long-distance runner. Gross ML, Davlin LB, Evanski PM. Am J Sports Med 1991;19(4):409-412.

 

18. Heel lifting as a conservative therapy for osteoarthritis of the hip: based on the rational of Pauwels’ intertrochanteric osteotomy. Ohsawa S, Ueno R. Prosthet Orthot Int 1997;21(2):153-158.

 

19. Conservative correction of leg-length discrepancies of 10mm or less for the relief of chronic low back pain. Defrin R, Ben Benyamin S, Aldubi RD, Pick CG. Arch Phys Med Rehabil.2005 Nov;86(11):2075-80.

 

20. Harrison DE, Harrison DD, Haas JW, Betz JW, Janik TJ, Holland B. Conservative Methods to Correct Lateral Translations of the Head: A Non-randomized Clinical Control Trial. J Rehab Res Devel 2004;41(4):631-640.

 

21. Mirror Image Methods for Correcting Trunk List: A Non-randomized Clinical Control Trial. Harrison DE, Cailliet R, Betz JW, Harrison DD, Haas JW, Janik TJ, Holland B. Harrison Eur Spine J 2005; 14:155-162.

 

22. Increasing the Cervical Lordosis with CBP Seated Combined Extension-Compression and Transverse Load Cervical Traction with Cervical Manipulation: Non-randomized Clinical Control Trial. Harrison DE, Harrison DD, Betz J, Janik TJ, Holland B, Colloca C. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2003; 26(3): 139-151.

 

23. Changes in Sagittal Lumbar Configuration with a New Method of Extension Traction: Non-randomized Clinical Control Trial. Harrison DE, Harrison DD, Cailliet R, Janik TJ, Holland B. Arch Phys Med Rehab 2002; 83(11): 1585-1591.

 

24. New 3-Point Bending Traction Method of Restoring Cervical Lordosis Combined with Cervical Manipulation: Non-randomized Clinical Control Trial. Harrison DE, Cailliet R, Harrison DD, Janik TJ, Holland B. Arch Phys Med Rehab 2002; 83(4): 447-453.

 

25. Long-term morbidity and mortality after a clinically diagnosed vertebral fracture in the elderly-a 12 and 22 year follow up. Calcif Tissue Int 2005;76(4)p235-42